Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 22, 2019






Posted by: Elmer Brabante | January 26, 2019


Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 10, 2018

2018 Reviewer in Remedial Law

Please click the link below to generate the file. Thank you.









Good luck to the 2018 Barristers! To God be all the glory!



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 19, 2017






Absolute Timber Co. (ATC) has been engaged in the logging business in Isabela. To secure one of its shipments of logs to be transported by Andok Shipping Co., ATC purchased a marine policy with an all-risk provision. Because of a strong typhoon then hitting Northern Luzon, the vessel sank and the shipment of lofs was totally lost. ATC filed its claim, but the insurer denied the claim on several grounds, namely:

  1. the vessel had not been seaworthy;
  2. the vessel’s crew had lacked sufficient training;
  3. the improper loading of the logs on only one side of the vesse had led to the tilting of the ship to that side during the stormy voyage; and
  4. the extremely bad weather had been a fortuitous event.

ATC now seeks your legal advice to know if its claim was sustainable. What is your advice? Explain your answer. (3%)


The newly restored Ford Mustang muscle car was just released from the car restoration shop to its owner, Seth, an avid sportsman. Given his passion for sailing, he needed to go to a round-the-world voyage with his crew on his brand-new 180-meter yacht. Hearing about his coming voyage, Sean, his bosom friend, asked Seth if he could borrow the car for his net roadshow. Sean, who had been in display the restored car of Seth in major cities of the country. Seth agreed and lent the Ford Mustang to Sean. Seth further expressly allowed Sean to use the car even for his own purposes on special occasions during his absence from the country. Seth and Sean then went together to Bayad Agad Insurance Co. (BAIC) to get separate policies for the car in their respective names.

BAIC consults you as its lawyer on whether separate policies could be issued to Seth and Sean in respect of the same car.

  1. What is insurable interest? (2%)
  2. Do Seth and Sean have separate insurable interests? Explain briefly your answer. (3%)



Morgan, a lawyer, received a lot of diving and other water sports equipment as payment of his professional fees by Dennis, his client in a child custody case. Dennis owned a diving and water sports dealership in Anilao, Batangas. Morgan decided to name Dennis as entrustee because he did not have any experience in selling such specialized sports equipment. They executed a trust receipt agreement, with Morgan as entruster and Dennis as entrustee.

Before the sports equipment could be sold, a strong typhoon hit Batangas. Anilao and other parts of Batangas experienced power outage. Taking advantage of the total darkness, unidentified thieves destroyed the padlocks of the establishment of Dennis, and carted off the equipment inside.

Morgan demanded that Dennis pay the value of the stolen equipment, but the latter refused on the ground that he also had suffered from the effects of the typhoon, and insisted that the cause of the loss was fortuitous event or force majeure.

Is the justification of Dennis warranted? Explain your answer. (4%)


Safe Warehouse, Inc. (Safe) issued on various dates negotiable warehouse receipts to Peter, Paul, and Mary covering certain goods deposited by the latter with the former. Peter, Paul, and Mary then negotiated and endorsed the warehouse receipts to Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles upon payment by the latter of valuable consideration for the warehouse receipts. Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles were not aware of, nor were they parties to any irregularity or infirmity affecting the title or the face of the warehouse receipts.

On due dates of the warehouse receipes, Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles demanded that Safe surrender the goods to them. Safe refused because its warehouseman’s claim must first be paid. Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles refused to pay, and insisted that such claim was the liability of Peter, Paul, and Mary.

  1. What is a warehouseman’s claim? (3%)
  2. Is Safe’s refusal to surrender the goods to Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles legally justified? Explain your answer. (3%)



Data Realty, Inc. (DRI) was engaged in realty development. The family of Matteo owned 100% of the capital stock of DRI. Matteo was also the President and Chairman of the Board of Directors. Other members of Matteo’s family held the major positions in DRI. Because of a nasty takeover fight with D&E Realty Co., Inc. (D&E), another realty developer, for the control of a smaller realty company with vast landholdings, DRI and D&E engaged in an expensive litigation that eventually led to a money judgment being rendered in favor of D&E.

Meantime, DRI, facing inability to pay its liabilities as they fall due but still holding substantial assets, filed a petition for voluntary rehabilitation. Trying to beat the consequences of rehabilitation proceedings, D&E moved in the trial court for the issuance of a writ of execution. The trial court also happened to be the rehabilitation court. The writ of execution was issued.

Serving the writ of execution, Merto, the court sheriff who had just passed his Credit Transactions subject in law school, garnished Matteo’s bank accounts, and levied his real properties, including his house and lot in Makati.

Are the garnishment and levy of Matteo’s assets lawful and proper? Explain your answer. (4%)


Sid used to be the majority stockholder and President of Excellent Corporation (Excellent). When Meridian Co., Inc. (Meridian), a local conglomerate, took over control and ownership of Excellent, it brought along its team of officers. Sid thus became a minority stockholder and a minority member of the Board of Directors. Excellent, being the leading beverage manufacturer in the country, became the monopoly when Meridian’s own beverage business was merged with Excellent’s, thereby making Excellent virtually the only beverage manufacturer in the country.

Left out and ignored by the management, Sid became a fiscalizer of sorts, questioning during the Board meetings the direction being pursued by Excellent’s officers.

Ultimately, Sid demanded the inspection of the books and other corporate records of Excellent. The management refused to comply, saying that his right as a minority stockholder has been much reduced.

State under what conditions may Sid properly assert his right to inspect the books and other corporate records of Excellent. Explain your answer. (3%)


Procopio, a Director and the CEO of Parisian Hotel Co., Inc. (Parisian), was charged along with other company officials with several counts of estafa in connection with the non-remittance of SSS premiums the company had collected from its employees. During the pendency of the cases, Parisian filed a petition for rehabilitation. The court, finding the petition to be sufficient in form and substance, issued a commencement order together with a stay or suspension order.

Citing the commencement order, Procopio and the other officers facing the criminal charges moved to suspend the proceedings in the estafa cases.

  1. What is a commencement order, and what is the effect of its issuance? Explain your answer. (4%)
  2. Suppose you are the trial judge, will you grant the motion to suspend of Procopio, et al.? Explain your answer. (4%)



Under the Nell Doctrine, so called because it was first pronounced by the Supreme Court in the 1965 ruling in Nell v. Pacific Farms, Inc. (15 SCRA 415), the general rule is that where one corporation sells or otherwise transfers all of its assets to another corporation, the latter is not liable for the debts and liabilities of the transferor.

State the exceptions to the Nell Doctrine. (4%)


Santorini Corporation (Santorini) was in dire straits. In order to firm up its financial standing, it agreed to entertain the merger and takeover offer of Proficient Corporation (Proficient), the leading company in their line of business. Erica, the major stockholder of Santorini, strongly opposed the merger and takeover. The matter of the merger and takeover by Proficient was included in the agenda of the next meeting of Santorini’s Board of Directors. However, owing to Erica’s serious illness that required her to seek urgent medical treatment and care in Singapore, she failed to attend the meeting and was consequently unable to cast her vote. The Board of Directors approved the merger and takeover. At the time of the meeting, Santorini had been in the red for a number of years owing to its recurring business losses and reverses.

Erica seeks your legal advice regarding her right as a stockholder opposed to the corporate action. Explain your answer. (4%)


Samito is the President and a Director of Lucky Bank (Lucky), a commercial bank holding its main office in Makati. His brother, Othello, owned a big fishing business based in Malabon. Othello applied for a loan of P50 million with Lucky. Othello followed the ordinary banking procedures in all the stages of the processing of his application. When required, he made the necessary arrangements to guarantee the loan. Thus, in addition to the real estate mortgage, Othello executed a joint and solidary suretyship, issued postdated checks, and submitted all other requirements prescribed by Lucky.

When the loan application was about to be approved and the proceeds released, BG Company, a keen competitor of Othello in the fishing industry, wrote to the Board of Directors and the management of Lucky questioning the loan on the ground of conflict of interest due to Samito and Othello being brothers, citing the legal restriction against bank exposure of directors, officers, stockholders or their related interests. (DOSRI).

  1. What are the three restrictions imposed by law on DOSRI transactions? (4%)
  2. Is BG Company’s opposition based on conflict of interest and violation of the restrictions on DOSRI transactions legally and factually correct? Explain your answer. (4%)



Hortencio owned a modest grocery business in Laguna. Because of the economic downturn, he incurred huge financial liabilities. he remained afloat only because of the properties inherited from his parents who had both come from landed families in laguna. His main creditor was Puresilver Company (Puresilver), the principal supplier of the merchandise sold in his store. To secure his credit with Puresilver, he executed a real estate mortgage with a dragnet clause involving his family’s assets worth several millions of pesos.

Nonetheless, Hortencio, while generally in the black, now faces a situation where he is unable to pay his liabilities as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. What will you advise him to do to resolve his dire financial condition? Explain your answer. (5%)


Wyatt, an internet entrepreneur, engaged in a sideline business of creating computer programs for selected clients on a per project basis and for servicing basic computer problems of his friends and family members. His main job was being an IT consultant at Futurex Co., a local computer company.

Because of his ill-advised investments in the stock market and the fraud perpetrated against him by his trusted confidante, Wyatt was already drowning in debt, that is, he had far more liabilities than his entire assets.

What legal recourse remained available to Wyatt? Explain your answer. (5%)



Virtucio was a composer of Ilocano songs who has been quite popular in the Ilocos Region. Pascuala is a professor of music in a local university with special focus on indigenous music. When she heard the musical works of Virtucio, she purchased a CD of his works. She copied thte CD and sent the second copy to her Music class with instructions for the class to listen to the CD and analyze the works of Virtucio.

Did Pascuala thereby infringe Virtucio’s copyright? Explain your answer. (4%)


Super Biology Corporation (Super Biology) invented and patented a miracle medicine for the cure of AIDS. Being the sole manufacturer, Super Biology sold the medicine at an exorbitant price. Because of the sudden prevalence of AIDS cases in Metro Manila and other urban areas, the Department of Health (DOH) asked Super Biology for a license to produce and sell the AIDS medicine to the public at a substantially lower price. Super Biology, citing the huge costs and expenses incurred for research and development, refused.

Assuming you are asked your opinion as the legal consultant of DOH, discuss how you will resolve the matter. (4%)



Flora, a frequent traveller, found a purse concealed between the cushions of a large sofa inside the VIP lounge in NAIA while she was waiting for her flight to be called. Inside the purse was a very valuable diamond-studded necklace. She decided not to turn over the purse to the airport management, and instead to keep it. On her return from her travels, she had a dependable jeweller appraise the necklace, and the latter told her that the necklace was easily worth at least P5 million in the open market. To test the appraisal, she pawned the necklace for P2 million. She then deposited the entire amount in her checking account with Metro Bank. Promptly, Metro Bank reported the transaction to the Anti-Money Laundering Council (AMLC).

Given that her appropriation was theft, may Flora be successfully prosecuted for money laundering? Explain briefly your answer. (4%)


Prosperous Bank is a domestic bank with head office in Makati. It handles the banking requirements of thousands of clients.

The AMLC initiated a discreet investigation of the financial transactions of Lorenzo, a suspected drug trafficker based in Naga City. The intelligence group of the AMLC, in coordination with the counterpart group from the PDEA and the NBI, gathered ample evidence establishing Lorenzo’s unlawful drug activities. The AMLC had probable cause that his deposits and investments in various banks, including Prosperous Bank, were related to money laundering.

Accordingly, the AMLC now transmits to Prosperous Bank a formal demand to allow its agent to examine the banking transactions of Lorenzo, but Prosperous Bank refuses the demand.

Is Prosperous Bank’s refusal justified? Explain your answer. (4%)



Alfred issued a check for P1,000 to Benjamin, his friend, as payment for an electronic gadget. The check was drawn against Alfred’s account with Good Bank. Benjamin then indorsed the check specially in favor of Cesar. However, Cesar misplaced the check. Dexter, a dormmate of Cesar, found the check, altered its amount to P91,000 and forged Cesar’s indorsement by way of a blank indorsement in favor of Felix, a known jeweler. Felix then caused the deposit of the check in his account with Solar Bank. As collecting bank, Solar Bank stamped “all previous indorsements guaranteed” on the check. Seeing such stamp of the collecting bank, Good Bank paid the amount of P91,000 on the check.

May Good Bank claim reimbursement from Alfred? Explain your answer. (4%)


In 2006, Donald, an American temporarily residing in Cebu City, issued to Rhodora a check for $50,000 drawn against Wells Fargo Bank with offices in San Francisco, California. Rhodora negotiated the check and delivered it to Yaasmin, a Filipina socialite who frequently travelled locally and internationally. Because of her frequent travels, Yaasmin misplaced the check. It was only 11 years later on, in 2017, when she found the check inside a diary kept in her vault in her Hollywood, California house.

Discuss and explain the rights of Yaasmin on the check. (4%)


Wisconsin Transportation Co., Inc. (WTC) owned and operated an inter-island deluxe bus service plying the Manila-Batangas-Mindoro route. Three friends, namely: Aurelio, Jerome, and Florencio rode on the same WTC bus from Manila bound for Mindoro. Aurelio purchased a ticket for himself. Jerome, being a boyhood friend of the bus driver, was allowed a free ride by agreeing to sit during the trip on a stool placed in the aisle. Florencio, already penniless after spending all of his money on beer the night before, just stole a ride in the bus by hiding in the on-board toilet of the bus.

During the trip, the bus collided with another bus coming from the opposite direction. The three friends all suffered serious physical injuries.

What are WTC’s liabilities, if any, in favor of Aurelio, Jerome, and Florencio? Explain your answer. (4%)


TRUE or FALSE – Explain briefly your answer.

  1. A conviction under the Trust Receipts Law shall bar a prosecution for estafa under the Revised Penal Code. (2%)
  2. The term capital in relation to public utilities under Sec. 11, Art. XII of the 1987 Constitution refers to the total outstanding capital stock comprising both common and non-voting preferred shares. (2%)
  3. Forgery is a real defense but may only be raised against a holder not in due course. (2%)
  4. News reports are not copyrightable. (2%)
  5. The law on life insurance prohibits double insurance. (2%)


Onassis Shipping, Inc. (Onassis) operated passenger vessels and cargo trucks, and offered its services to the general public. In line with its vision and mission to protect the environment, Go-Green Asia (Go-Green), an NGO affiliated with Greenpeace, entered into a contract with Onassis whereby Go-Green would operate with its own crew the M/V Dolphin, an ocean-going passenger vessel of Onassis.

While on its way to Palawan carrying Go-Green’s invited guests who were international and local observers desirous of checking certain environmental concerns in the area, the M/V Dolphin encountered high waves and strong winds caused by a typhoon in the West Philippine Sea. The rough seas led to serious physical injuries to some of the guests.

Discuss the liabilities of Onassis and Go-Green to the passengers of the M/V Dolphin. Explain briefly your answer. (3%)



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 12, 2017





State whether the following marital unions are valid, void, or voidable, and give the corresponding justifications for your answer:

(a) Ador and Becky’s marriage wherein Ador was afflicted with AIDS prior to the marriage. (2%)

(b) Carlos’ marriage to Dina which took place after Dina had poisoned her previous husband Edu in order to free herself from any impediment in order to live with Carlos. (2%)

(c) Eli and Fely’s marriage solemnized seven years after the disappearance of Chona, Eli’s previous spouse, after the plane she had boarded crashed in the West Philippine Sea. (2%)

(d) David who married Lina immediately the day after obtaining a judicial decree annulling his prior marriage to Elisa. (2%)

(e) Marriage of Zoren and Carmina who did not secure a marriage license prior to their wedding, but lived together as husband and wife for 10 years without any legal impediment to marry. (2%)


In 1960, Rigor and Mike occupied two separate but adjacent tracts of land in Mindoro. Rigor’s tract was classified as timber land while Mike’s was classified as agricultural land. Each of them fenced and cultivated his own tract continuously for 30 years. In 1991, the Government declared the land occupied by Mike as alienable and disposable, and the one cultivated by Rigor as no longer intended for public use or public service.

Rigor and Mike now come to you today for legal advice in asserting their right of ownership of their respective lands based on their long possession and occupation since 1960.

(a) What are the legal consequences of the 1991 declarations of the Government respecting the lands? Explain your answer. (2%)

(b) Given that, according to Section 48(b) of Commonwealth Act No. 141, in relation to Section 14(1) of Presidential Decree No. 1529, the open, continuous, exclusive, and notorious possession and occupation of alienable and disposable lands of the public domain as basis for judicial confirmation of imperfect title must be from June 12, 1945, or earlier, may Mike nevertheless validly base his assertion of the right of ownership on prescription under the Civil Code? Explain your answer. (4%)

(c) Does Rigor have legal basis for his application for judicial confirmation of imperfect title based on prescription as defined by the Civil Code given that, like Mike, his open, continuous, exclusive, and notorious possession and occupation was not since June 12, 1945, or earlier, and his tract of land was timber land until the declaration in 1991? Explain your answer. (4%)


Josef owns a piece of land in Pampanga. The National Housing Authority (NHA) sought to expropriate the property for its socialized housing project. The trial court fixed the just compensation for the property at P50 million. The NHA immediately deposited the same at the authorized depository bank and filed a motion for the issuance of a writ of possession with the trial court. Unfortunately, there was delay in the resolution of the motion. Meanwhile, the amount deposited earned interest.

When Josef sought the release of the amount deposited, NHA argued that Josef should only be entitled to P50 million.

Who owns the interest earned? (3%)


(a) Distinguish antichresis from usufruct. (3%)

(b) Distinguish commodatum from mutuum. (3%)


Jacob has owned a farm land in Ramos, Tarlac. In 2012, Liz surreptitiously entered and cultivated the property. In 2014, Jacob discovered Liz’s presence in and cultivation of the property. Due to his being busy attending to his business in Cebu, he tolerated Liz’s cultivation of the property. Subsequently, in December 2016, Jacob wanted to regain possession of the property; hence, he sent a letter to Liz demanding that she vacate the property. Liz did not vacate despite the demand.

Jacob comes to enlist your legal assistance to bring an action against Liz to recover the possession of the property.

What remedies are available to Jacob to recover possession of his property under the circumstances? Explain your answer. (4%)


Tyler owns a lot that is enclosed by the lots of Riley to the North and East, of Dylan to the South, and of Reece to the West. The current route to the public highway is a kilometer’s walk through the northern lot of Riley, but the route is a rough road that gets muddy during the rainy season, and is inconvenient because it is only 2.5 meters wide. Tyler’s nearest access to the public highway would be through the southern lot of Dylan.

May Dylan be legally required to afford to Tyler a right of way through his property? Explain your answer. (4%)


Alice agreed to sell a parcel of land with an area of 500 square meters registered in her name and covered by TCT No. 12345 in favor of Bernadette for the amount of P900,000. Their agreement dated October 15, 2015, reads as follows:

I, Bernadette, agree to buy the lot owned by Alice covered by TCT No. 12345 for the ammount of P900,000 subject to the following schedule of payment:

Upon signing of agreement – P100,000

November 15, 2015 – P200,000

December 15, 2015 – P200,000

January 15, 2016 – P200,000

February 15, 2016 – P200,000

Title to the property shall be transferred upon full payment of P900,000 on or before February 15, 2016.

After making the initial payment of P100,000 on october 15, 2015, and the second installment of P200,000 on November 15, 2015, Bernadette defaulted despite repeated demands from Alice.

In December 2016, Bernadette offered to pay her balance but Alice refused and told her that the land was no longer for sale. Due to the refusal, Bernadette caused the annotation of her adverse clalm upon TCT No. 12345 on December 19, 2016. Later on, Bernadette discovered that Alice had sold the property to Chona on February 5, 2016, and that TCT No. 12345 had been cancelled and another one issued (TCT No. 67891) in favor of Chona as the new owner.

Bernadette sued Alice and Chona for specific performance, annulment of sale and cancellation of TCT No. 67891. Bernadette insisted that she had entered into a contract of sale with Alice; and that because Alice had engaged in double sale, TCT No. 67891 should be cancelled and another title be issued in Bernadette’s favor.

  1. Did Alice and Bernadette enter into a contract of sale of the lot covered by TCT No. 12345? Explain your answer. (4%)
  2. Did Alice engage in double sale of the property? Explain your answer. (4%)


Pedro had worked for 15 years in Saudi Arabia when he finally decided to engage in farming in his home province where his 10-hectare farmland valued at P2,000,000 was located. He had already P3,000,000 savings from his long stint in Saudi Arabia.

Eagerly awaiting Pedro’s arrival at the NAIA were his aging parents Modesto and Jacinta, his common-law spouse Veneranda, their three children, and Alex, his child by Carol, his departed legal wife. Sadly for all of them, Pedro suffered a stroke because of his over-excitement just as the plane was about to land, and died without seeing any of them.

The farmland and the savings were all the properties he left.

(a) State who are Pedro’s legal heirs, and the shares of each legal heir to the estate? Explain your answer. (4%)

(b) Assuming that Pedro’s will is discovered soon after his funeral. In the will, he disposed of half of his estate in favor of Veneranda, and the other half in favor of his children and his parents in equal shares. Assuming also that the will is admitted to probate by the proper court. Are the testamentary dispositions valid and effective under the law on succession? Explain your answer. (4%)


Danny and Elsa were married in 2002. In 2012, Elsa left the conjugal home and her two minor children with Danny to live with her paramour. In 2015. Danny sold without EIsa’s consent a parcel of land registered in his name that he had purchased prior to the marriage. Danny used the proceeds of the sale to pay for his children’s tuition fees.

Is the sale valid, void or voidable? Explain your answer. (3%)


Briefly explain whether the following contracts are valid, rescissible, unenforceable, or void:

(a) A contract of sale between Lana and Andy wherein 16-year old Lana agreed to sell her grand piano for 25,000.00. (2%)

(b) A contract of lease of the Philippine Sea entered by and between Mitoy and Elsa. (2%)

(c) A barter of toys executed by 12-year old Clarence and 10-year old Czar (2%)

(d)A sale entered by Barri and Garri, both minors, which their parents later ratified. (2%)

(e) Jenny’s sale of her car to Celestine in order to evade attachment by Jenny’s creditors. (2%)


Zeny and Nolan were best friends for a long time already. Zeny borrowed 310,000.00 from Nolan, evidenced by a promissory note whereby Zeny promised to pay the loan “once his means permit.” Two months later, they had a quarrel that broke their long-standing friendship.

Nolan seeks your advice on how to collect from Zeny despite the tenor of the promissory note. what will your advice be? Explain your answer. (3%)


Krystal owns a parcel of land covered by TCT No. 12345 in Angeles City, Due to severe financial constraints, Krystal was lorc based in the property to RBP Corporation, a foreign corporation based in South Korea. Subsequently, RBP Corporation sold the property to Gloria, one of its most valued clients.

Wanting her property back, Krystal, learning of the transfer of the property from RBP Corporation to Gloria, sued both of them in the Regional Trial Court (RTC) for annulment of sale and for reconveyance. She alleged that the sale by RBP Corporation to Gloria was void because RBP Corporation was a foreign corporation prohibited by the Constitution from acquiring and owning lands in the Philippines.

Will KrystaI’s suit for annulment of sale and reconveyance prosper? Explain your answer. (4%)


TRUE or FALSE – Explain your answers.

(a) All rights are considered as property. (2%)

(b) A lessee cannot bring a case for quieting of title respecting the property that he leases. (2%)

(c) Only the city or municipal mayor can file a civil action to abate a public nuisance. (2%)

(d) Possession of a movable property is lost when the location of the said movable is unknown to the owner. (2%)

(e) Continuous non-apparent easements can be acquired either through title or by prescription. (2%)


Plutarco owned land that borders on a river. After several years the action of the water of the river caused the deposit of soil, and increased the area of Plutarco’s property by 200 square meters.

(a) If Plutarco wants to own the increase in area, what will be his legal basis for doing so? Explain your answer. (2%)

(b) On the other hand, if the river dries up, may Plutarco validly claim a right of ownership of the dried-up river bed? Explain your answer. (2%)


Kevin signed a loan agreement with ABC Bank. To secure payment, Kevin requested his girlfriend Rosella to execute a document entitled “Continuing Guaranty Agreement” whereby she expressly agreed to be solidarily liable for the obligation of Kevin.

Can ABC Bank proceed directly against Rosella upon Kevin’s default even without proceeding against Kevin first? Explain your answer. (3%)


Jovencio operated a school bus to ferry his two sons and five of their schoolmates from their houses to their school, and back. The parents of the five schoolmates paid for the service. One morning, Porfirio, the driver, took a short cut on the way to school because he was running late, and drove across an unmanned railway crossing. At the time, Porfirio was wearing earphones because he loved to hear loud music while driving. As he crossed the railway tracks, a speeding PNR train loudly blared its horn to warn Porfirio, but the latter did not hear the horn because of the loud music. The train inevitably rammed into the school bus. The strong impact of the collision between the school bus and the train resulted in the instant death of one of the classmates of Jovencio’s younger son.

The parents of the fatality sued Jovencio for damages based on culpa contractual alleging that Jovencio was a common carrier; Porfirio for being negligent; and the PNR for damages based on culpa aquiliana.

Jovencio denied being a common carrier. He insisted that he had exercised the diligence of a good father of a family in supervising Porfirio, claiming that the latter had had no history of negligence or recklessness before the fatal accident.

(a) Did his operation of the school bus service for a limited clientele render Jovencio a common carrier? Explain your answer. (3%)

(b) In accordance with your answer to the preceding question, state the degree of diligence to be observed by Jovencio, and the consequences thereof. Explain your answer. (3%)

(c) Assuming that the fatality was a minor of only 15 years of age who had no earning capacity at the time of his death because he was still a student in high school, and the trial court is minded to award indemnity, what may possibly be the legal and factual justifications for the award of loss of earning capacity? Explain your answer. (4%)



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 12, 2017





SMZ, Inc., is a VAT-registered enterprise engaged in the general construction business. HP International contracts the services of SMZ, Inc. to construct HP International’s factory building located in the Laguna Techno Park, a special economic zone. HP lnternational is registered with the the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) as an ecozone export enterprise, and, as such, enjoys income tax holiday pursuant to the Special Economic Zone Act of 1995.

SMZ, Inc., files an application with the Bureau of lnternal Revenue (BIR) for the VAT zero-rating of its sale of services to HP International. However, the BIR denies SMZ, lnc.’s application on the ground that HP lnternational already enjoys income tax holiday.

Is the BIR correct in denying SMZ, lnc.’s application? Explain your answer. (6%)


Wreck Corporation is a domestic corporation engaged in the business of importing, refining and selling petroleum products. During the period from September 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, Wreck Corporation imported 225 million liters of Jet A-1 aviation fuel and paid the excise taxes thereon. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the total volume of aviation fuel imported were actually sold to international carriers of Philippine and foreign registries for their use or consumption outside of the Philippines in the period from November 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Wreck Corporation did not pass on to the international carriers the excise taxes it paid on the importation of petroleum products.

On June 25, 2015, Wreck Corporation filed an administrative claim for refund or issuance of tax credit certificate amounting to the excise taxes it had paid on the importation of 225 million liters of Jet A-1 aviation fuel.

If you were the Commissioner of lnternal Revenue, will you grant Wreck Corporation’s administrative claim for refund or issuance of tax credit certificate Explain your answer. (6%)


Vanderful, Inc.’s income tax return for taxable year 2015 showed an overpayment due to excess creditable witholding taxes in the amount of P750,000. The company opted to carry over the excess income tax credits as tax credit against its quarterly income tax liabilities for the next succeeding years. For taxable year 2016, the company’s income tax return showed an overpayment due to excess creditable withholding taxes in the amount of P1,100,000, which included the carry-over from year 2015 in the amount of P750,000 because its operations resulted in a net loss hence, there was no application for any tax liability. This time, the company opted and marked the box “To be refunded” in respect of the total amount of P1,100,000.

Vanderful, lnc. now files in the BIR a claim for refund of unutilized overpayments of P1,100,000. Is the claim meritorious? (4%)


On the basis of a warrant of seizure and detention issued by the Collector of Customs for the purpose of enforcing the Tariff and Customs Code, assorted brands of liquor and cigarettes said to have been illegally imported into the Philippines were seized from a store operating in a Freeport zone. The store owner moved for the quasahal of the warrant on the ground that the collector of Customs had no jurisdiction to enforce it within the Freeport zone.

Should the motion to quash be granted (3%)


On March 30, 2016, XL Co. filed an administrative claim for refund of unutilized input VAT for taxable year 2014, together with supporting documents. XL Co. claimed that its sale of generated power and delivery of electric capacity was VAT zero-rated. Due to the inaction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR), XL Co. filed with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) the following judicial claims for refund.

  • Period Covered – Date Filed
  • 1st Quarter of 2014 – March 31, 2016
  • 2nd Quarter of 2014 – June 30, 2016
  • 3rd and 4th quarter of 2014 – August 12, 2016

Is XL Co.’s claim for VAT refund timely filed? Explain your answer. (5%)


Heeding the pronouncement of the President that the worsening traffic condition in the metropolis was a sign of economic progress, the Congress enacted Republic Act No. 10701, also known as An Act Imposing a Transport Tax on the Purchase of Private Vehicles.

Under RA 10701, buyers of private vehicles are required to pay a transport tax equivalent to 5% of the total purchase price per vehicle purchased. RA 10701 provides that the Land Transportation Office (LTO) shall not accept for registration any new vehicles without proof of payment of the 5% transport tax. RA 10701 further provide that existing owners of private vehicles shall be required to pay a tax equivalent to 5% of the current fair market value of every vehicle registered with the LTO. However, RA 10701 exempts owners of public utility vehicles and the Government from the coverage of the 5% transport tax.

A group of private vehicle owners sue on the ground that  the law is unconstitutional for contravening the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.

Rule on the constitutionality and validity of RA 10701. (5%)


Calvin Dela Pisa was a Permits and Licensing Officer (rank-and-file) of Sta. Portia Realty Corporation (SPRC). He invited the Regional Director of the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to lunch at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City to discuss the approval of SPRC’s application for a development permit in connection with its subdivision development project in Pasig City. At breakfast the following day, Calvin met a prospective client interested to enter into a joint venture with SPRC for the construction of a residential condominium unit in Cainta, Rizal.

Calvin incurred expenses for the lunch and breakfast meetings he had with the Regional Director of HLURB and the prospective client, respectively. The expenses were duly supported by official receipts issued in his name. At month’s end, he requested the reimbursement of his expenses, and SPRC granted his request.

(a) Can SPRC claim an allowable deduction for the expenses incurred by Calvin? Explain your answer. (2.5%)

(b) Is the reimbursement received by Calvin from SPRC subject to tax? Explain your answer. (2.5%)


On April 30, 2015, Daryl resigned as the production manager of 52nd Avenue, a television studio owned by SSS Entertainment Corporation. 52nd Avenue issued to her a Certificate of Withholding Tax on Compensation (BIR Form No. 2316), which showed that the tax withheld from her compensation was equal to her income tax due for the period from January 2015 to April 30 2015.

A month after her resignation, Daryl put up her own studio and started producing short films. She was able to earn a meager income from her short films but did not keep record of her production expenses.

Is Daryl qualified for substituted filing for taxable year 2015? Explain your answer. (3%)


Upon his retirement, Alfredo transferred his savings derived from his salary as a marketing assistant to a time deposit with AAB Bank. The bank regularly deducted 20% final withholding tax on the interest income from the time deposit.

Alfredo contends that the 20% final tax on the interest income constituted double taxation because his salary had been already subjected to withholding tax.

Is Alfredo’s contention correct? Explain your answer. (3%)


On January 27, 2017, Ramon, the comptroller of Vantage Point, Inc., executed a document entitled “Waiver of the Statute of Limitations” in connection with the BIR’s investigation of the tax liabilities of the company for the year 2012. However, the Board of Directors of Vantage Point, Inc., did not adopt a board resolution authorizing Ramon to execute the waiver.

On October 14, 2017, Vantage Point, Inc., received a preliminary assessment notice from the BIR indicating its deficiency withholding taxes for the year  2012. Vantage Point, Inc., filed its protest. On October 30, 2017, the BIR issued a formal letter of demand and final assessment notice. Vantage Point, Inc., again filed a protest. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue denied the protests and directed the collection of the assessed deficiency taxes.

Accordingly, Vantage Point, Inc., filed a petition for review in the CTA to seek the cancellation and withdrawal of the assessment on the ground of prescription.

(a) What constitutes a valid waiver of the statute of limitations for the assessment and collection of taxes? Explain your answer. (3%)

(b) Has the right of the Government to assess and collect deficiency taxes from Vantage Point, Inc. for the year 2012 prescribed? Explain your answer. (3%)


The Board of Directors of Sumo Corporation, a company primarily engaged in the business of marketing and distributing pest control products, approved the partial cessation of its commercial operations, resulting in the separation of 32 regular employees. Only half of the affected employees were notified of the board resolution.

Rule on the taxability of the separation pay and indemnity that will be received by the affected employees as the result of their separation from service. Explain your answer. (3%)


On September 17, 2015, Data Realty, Inc., a real-estate corporation duly organized and existing under Philippine law, sold to Jenny Vera a condominium unit at Freedom Residences in Malabon City with an area of 32.31 square meters for a contract price of P4,213,000. The condominium unit had a zonal value amounting to P2,877,000 and fair market value amounting to P550,000.

(a) Is the transaction subject to value-added tax and documentary stamp tax? Explain your answer. (3%)

(b) Would your answer be the same if the property was sod by a bank in a foreclosure sale? Explain your answer. (3%)


BATAS Law is a general professional partnership operating in the City of Valenzuela. It regularly pays value-added tax on its services. All its lawyers have individually paid the required professional tax for the year 2017. However, as a condition for the renewal of its business permit for the year 2017, the City Treasurer of Valenzuela assessed BATAS Law for the payment of percentage business tax on its gross receipts for the year 2016 in accordance with the Revenue Tax Code of Valenzuela.

Is BATAS Law liable to pay the assessed percentage business tax? Explain your answer. (3%)


Globesmart Services, Inc. received a final assessment notice with formal letter of demand from the BIR for deficiency income tax, value-added tax and withholding tax for the taxable year 2016 amounting to P48 million. Globesmart Services, Inc., fied a protetst against the assessment, but the Commissioner of Internal Revenue denied the protest. Hence, Globesmart Services, Inc. filed a petition for review in the CTA with an urgent motion to suspend the collection of tax.

After hearing, the CTA Division issued a resolution granting the motion to suspend but required Globesmart Services, Inc., to post a surety bond equivalent to the deficiency assessment within 15 days from notice of the resolution. Globesmart Services, Inc. moved for the partial reconsideration of the resolution and for the reduction of the bond to an amount it could obtain. The CTA division issued another resolution reducing the amount of the surety bond to P24 million. The latter amount was still more than the net worth of Globesmart Services, Inc., as reported in its audited financial statements.

(a) May the collection of taxes be suspended? Explain your answer. (3%)

(b) Is the CTA Division justified in requiring Globesmart Services, Inc., to post a surety bond as a condition for the suspension of the deficiency tax collection? Explain your answer. (3%)


Casimira died on June 19, 2017, after three weeks of confinement due to an unsuccessful liver transplant. For her confinement, she had incurred substantial medical expenses that she financed through personal loans secured by mortgages on her real properties. Her heirs are still in the process of making an inventory of her assets that can be used to pay the estate taxes, if any, which are due on December 19, 2017.

(a) Are the medical expenses, personal loans and mortgages incurred by Casimira deductible from her gross estate? Explain your answer. (5%)

(b) May the heirs of Casimira file the estate tax return and pay the corresponding estate tax beyond December 19, 2017, without incurring interest and surcharge? Explain your answer. (3%)


The BIR assessed the Babuyan Water District (BWD) with deficiency income taxes amounting to P8.5 million, inclusive of interest and surcharge. The BWD disputed the assessment, and argued that it was a wholly-owned government entity performing essential government functions. However, the BIR denied the protest.

The BWD filed a petition for arbitration in the Office of the Secretary of Justice pursuant to Sections 66 to 71, Chapter 14, Book IV of the Administrative Code of 1987 to assail the denial of its protest, and to seek the proper interpretation of Section 32(B)(7)(b) of the Tax Code that excluded from gross income the income derived by the Government or its political subdivisions. The Secretary of Justice rendered a decision declaring the BWD exempt from the payment of income tax.

The Commissioner of Internal Revenue appealed to the CTA on the sole ground that the Secretary of Justice had no jurisdiction to review the assessment of the BIR.

Is the appeal meritorious? Explain your answer. (4%)


San Juan University is a non-stock, non-profit educational institution. It owns a piece of land in Caloocan City on which its three 2-storey school buildings stood. Two of the buildings are devoted to classrooms, laboratories, a canteen, a bookstore, and administrative offices. The third building is reserved as dormitory for student athletes who are granted scholarships for a given academic year.

In 2017, San Juan University earned income from tuition fees and from leasing a portion of its premises to various concessionaires of food, books, and school supplies.

(a) Can the City Treasurer of Caloocan City collect real property taxes on the land and building of San Juan University? Explain your answer. (5%)

(b) Is the income earned by San Juan University for the year 2017 subject to income tax? Explain your answer. (5%)


(a) Distinguishoutright smugglingfrom technical smuggling. (3%)

(b) Distinguish compromisefrom abatementof taxes. (3%)


CMI School, Inc., a non-stock, non-profit corporation, donated its three parcels of idle land situated in the Municipality of Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija to SLC University, another non-stock, non-profit corporation, in recognition of the latter’s contribution to and participation in the spiritual and educational development of the former.

(a) Is CMI School, Inc., liable for the payment of donor’s tax? Explain your answer. (2.5%)

(b) If SLC University later sells the three parcels of idle land to Puregold Supermarket, Inc., a stock corporation, will SLC University be liable for capital gains tax? Explain your answer. (3%)

(c) If SLC University donates the three parcels of idle land in favor of the Municipality of Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija, will SLC University be liable for donor’s tax? Explain your answer. (2.5%)



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 5, 2017

2017 Bar Exams Questions in Labor Law

2017 Bar Exams Questions in Labor Law
a. What are the accepted tests to determine the existence of an employer-employee relationship? (5%)
b. Applying the tests to determine the existence of employer-employee relationship, is a jeepney driver operating under the boundary system an employee of the jeepney operator or a mere lessee of the jeepney? Explain your answer. (3%)
Procopio was dismissed from employment for stealing his co-employee Raul’s watch. Procopio filed a complaint for illegal dismissal. The Labor Arbiter ruled in Procopio’s favor on the ground that Raul’s testimony was doubtful, and, therefore, the doubt should be resolved in favor of Procopio. On appeal, the NLRC reversed the ruling because Article 4 of the Labor Code – which states that all doubts in the interpretation and implementation of the provisions of the Labor Code, including the implementing rules and regulations, shall be resolved in favor of labor – applied only when the doubt involved the “implementation and interpretation” of the Labor Code; hence, the doubt, which involved the application of the rules on evidence, not the Labor Code, could not necessarily be resolved in favor of Procopio. Was the reversal correct? Explain your answer. (3%)
a. Andrew Manning Agency (AMA) recruited Feliciano for employment by Invictus Shipping, its foreign principal. Meantime, AMA and Invictus Shipping terminated their agency agreement. Upon his repatriation following his premature termination, Feliciano claimed from AMA and Invictus Shipping the payment of his salaries and benefits for the unserved portion of the contract. AMA denied liability on the ground that it no longer had an agency agreement with Invictus Shipping. Is AMA correct? Explain your answer. (3%)
b. As a rule, direct hiring of migrant workers is not allowed. What are the exceptions? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
c. Phil, a resident alien, sought employment in the Philippines. The employer, noticing that Phil was a foreigner, demanded that he first secures an employment permit from the DOLE. Is the employer correct? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
The Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Board (RTWPB) for Region 3 issued a wage order on November 2, 2017, fixing the minimum wages for all industries throughout Region 3.
a. Is the wage order subject to the approval of the National Wages and Productivity Commission before it takes effect? (2%)
b. The law mandates that no petition for wage increase shall be entertained within a period of 12 months from the effectivity of the wage order. Under what circumstances may the Kilusang Walang Takot, a federation of labor organizations that publicly and openly assails the wage order as blatantly unjust, initiate the review of the wage increases under the wage order without waiting for the end of the 12-month period? Explain your answer. (3%)
a. Percival was a mechanic of Pacific Airlines. He enjoyed a meal break of one hour. However, during meal breaks, he was required to be on standby for emergency work. During emergencies, he was made to forego his meals or to hurry up eating. He demanded payment of overtime for work done during his meal periods. Is Percival correct? Explain your answer. (3%)
b. Distinguish a learner from an apprentice. (4%)
c. Are there differences between a househelper and a homeworker? Explain your answer. (4%)
a. One of Pacific Airline’s policies was to hire only single applicants as flight attendants, and considered as automatically resigned the flight attendants at the moment they got married. Is the policy valid? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
b. Tarcisio was employed as operations manager and received a monthly salary of P25,000 through his payroll account with DB Bank. He obtained a loan from Roberto to purchase a car. Tarcisio failed to pay Roberto when the loan fell due. Roberto sued to collect, and moved to garnish Tarcisio’s payroll account. The latter vigorously objected and argued that salaries were exempt from garnishment. Is Tarcisio correct? Explain your answer. (3%)
Dr. Crisostomo entered into a retainer agreement with AB Hotel and Resort whereby he would provide medical services to the guests and employees of AB Hotel and Resort, which, in turn, would provide the clinic premises and medical supplies. He received a monthly retainer fee of P60,000, plus 70% share in the service charges from AB Hotel and Resort’s guests availing themselves of the clinic’s services. The clinic employed nurses and allied staff, whose salaries, SSS contributions, and other benefits he undertook to pay. AB Hotel and Resort issued directives giving instructions to him on the replenishment of emergency kits and forbidding the clinic staff from receiving cash payments from the guests. In time, the nurses and the clinic staff claimed entitlement to rights as regular employees of AB Hotel and Resort, but the latter refused on the ground that Dr. Crisostomo, who was their employer, was an independent contractor. Rule with reasons. (4%)
Marciano was hired as Chief Engineer on board the vessel M/V Australia. His contract of employment was for nine months. After nine months, he was re-hired. He was hired for a third time after another nine months. He now claims entitlement to the benefits of a regular employee based on his having performed tasks usually necessary and desirable to the employer’s business for a continuous period of more than one year. is Marciano’s claim tenable? Explain your answer. (3%)
Section 255 of the Labor Code recognizes three categories of employees, namely: managerial, supervisory, and rank-and-file.
a. Give the characteristics of each category of employees, and state whether the employees in each category may organize and form unions. Explain your answer. (5%)
b. May confidential employees who assist managerial employees and who act in a confidential capacity or have access to confidential matters being handled by persons exercising managerial functions in the field of labor relations form, or assist, or join labor unions? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
a. The labor sector has been loudly agitating for the end of labor-only contracting, as distinguished from job contracting. Explain these two kinds of labor contracting, and give the effect of a finding that one is a labor-only contractor. Explain your answers. (4%)
b. What are the grounds for validly terminating the services of an employee based on a just cause? (5%)
c. Give the procedure to be observed for validly terminating the services of an employee based on a just cause. (4%)
a. The modes of determining the exclusive bargaining agent of the employees in a business are: (a) voluntary recognition; (b) certification election; and (c) consent election. Explain how they differ from one another. (4%)
b. Marcel was the Vice President for Finance and Administration and a member of the Board of Directors of Mercedes Corporation. He brought a complaint for illegal suspension and illegal dismissal against Mercedes Corporation, which moved to dismiss the complaint on the ground that the complaint pertained to the jurisdiction of the RTC due to the controversy being intracorporate based on his positions in the corporation. Marcel countered that he had only been removed as Vice President for Finance and Administration, not as a member of the Board of Directors. he also argued that his position was not listed as among the corporate offices in Mercedes Corporation’s by-laws. Is the argument of Marcel correct? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
c. State the jurisdiction of the Voluntary Arbitrator, or Panel of Voluntary Arbitrators in labor disputes? (4%)
Juanito initiated a case for illegal dismissal against Mandarin Company. The Labor Arbiter decided in his favor, and ordered his immediate reinstatement with full backwages and without loss of seniority and other benefits. Mandarin Company did not like to allow him back in its premises to prevent him from influencing his co-workers to move against the interest of the company; hence, it directed his payroll reinstatement and paid his full backwages and other benefits even as it appealed to the NLRC.
A few months later, the NLRC reversed the ruling of the Labor Arbiter and declared that Juanito’s dismissal was valid. The reversal ultimately became final.
May Mandarin Company recover the backwages and other benefits paid to Juanito pursuant to the decision of the Labor Arbiter in view of the reversal by the NLRC? Rule with reasons. (2.5%)
Gene is a married regular employee of Matibay Corporation. The employees and Matibay Corporation had an existing CBA that provided for funeral and bereavement aid of P15,000 in case of the death of a legal dependent of a regular employee. His widowed other, who had been living with him and his family for many years, died; hence, he claimed the funeral aid. Matibay Corporation denied the claim on the basis that she had not been his legal dependent as the term legal dependent was defined by the Social Security Law.
a. Who may be the legal dependents of Gene under the Social Security Law? (2.5%)
b. Is Gene entitled to the funeral aid for the death of his widowed mother? Explain your answer. (2%)
Rosa was granted vacation leave by her employer to spend three weeks in Africa with her family. Prior to her departure, the General manager of the company requested her to visit the plant of a client of the company in Zimbabwe in order to derive the best manufacturing practices useful to the company. She accepted the request because the errand would be important to the company and Zimbabwe was anyway in her itinerary. It appears that she contracted a serious disease during the trip. Upon her return, she filed a claim for compensation, insisting that she had contracted the disease while serving the interest of her employer.
Under the Labor Code, the sickness or death of an employee, to be compensable, must have resulted from an illness either definitely accepted as an occupational disease by the Employees’ Compensation Commission, or caused by employment subject to proof that the risk of contracting the same is increased by working conditions.
Is the serious disease Rosa contracted during her trip to Africa compensable? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
Given that the liability for an illegal strike is individual, not collective, state when the participating union officers and members may be terminated from employment because of the illegal strike. Explain your answer. (4%)
A sympathetic strike is stoppage of work to make common cause with other strikers in another establishment or business. Is the sympathetic strike valid? Explain your answer. (1%)
Due to business recession, Ballistic Company retrenched a part of its workforce. Opposing the retrenchment, some of the affected employees staged a strike. Eventually, the retrenchment was found to be justified, and the strike was declared illegal; hence, the leaders of the strike, including the retrenched employees, were declared to have lost their employment status.
Are the striking retrenched employees still entitled to separation pay under Sec. 298 of the Labor Code despite the illegality of their strike? Explain your answer. (2%)
Pursuant to his power under Sec. 278(g) of the Labor Code, the Secretaryy of Labor assumed jurisdiction over the three-day old strike in Armor Steel Plates, Inc., one of the country’s bigger manufacturers of steel plates, and ordered all the striking employees to return to work. The striking employees ignored the order to return to work.
a. What conditions may justify the Secretary of Labor to assume jurisdiction? (2.5%)
b. What are the consequences of the assumption of jurisdiction by the Secretary of Labor, and of the disobedience to the return to work? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 5, 2017

2017 Bar Exams Questions in Political and International Law



A priority thrust of the Administration is the change  of the form of government from unitary to federal. The change can be effected only through constitutional amendment or revision.

A. What are the methods of amending the Constitution? Explain briefly each method. (3%)

B.Cite at least three provisions of the Constitution that need to be amended or revised to effect the change from unitary to federal, and explain briefly why. (3%)



Under the doctrine of immunity from suit, the State cannot be sued without its consent. How may the consent be given by the State? Explain your answer. (3%)


The doctrine of immunity from suit in favor of the State extends to public officials in the performance of their official duties. May such officials be sued nonetheless to prevent or undo their oppressive or illegal acts, or to compel them to act? Explain your answer. (3%)


Do government-owned or -controlled corporations also enjoy the immunity of the State from suit? Explain your answer. (3%)


State A and State B, two sovereign states, enter into a 10-year mutual defense treaty. State A finds that more progressive State B did not go to the aid of State A when it was threatened by its strong neighbor State C. State B reasoned that it had to be prudent and deliberate in reacting to State C because of their existing trade treaties.

  1. May State A unilaterally withdraw from its mutual defense treaty with State B? Explain your answer. (2.5%)
  2. What is the difference between the principles of pacta sunt servandaand rebus sic stantibusin international law? (2.5%)
  3. Are the principles of pacta sunt servandaand rebus sic stantibusrelevant in the treaty relations between State A and State B? What about in the treaty relations between State B and State C? Explain your answer. (2.5%)


What is the pardoning power of the President under Art. VIII, Sec. 19 of the Constitution? Is the exercise of the power absolute? (4%)

Distinguish pardon from amnesty. (4%)


  1. What is the right of legation, and how is it undertaken between states? Explain your answer. (2%)
  2. Under this right, may a country like Malaysia insist that the Philippines establishes a consulate in Sabah to look after the welfare of the Filipino migrants in the area? Explain your answer. (2%)



The President appoints the Vice President as his Administration’s Housing Czar, a position that requires the appointee to sit in the Cabinet. Although the appointment of the members of the Cabinet requires confirmation by the Commission on Appointment (CA), the Office of the President does not submit the appointment to the CA. May the Vice President validly sit in the Cabinet? (2.5%)


The  Executive Department has accumulated substantial savings from its appropriations. Needing P3,000,000 for the conduct of a plebiscite for the creation of a new city but has no funds appropriated soon by the Congress for the purpose, the COMELEC requests the President to transfer funds from the savings of the Executive Department in order to avoid a delay in the holding of the plebiscite.

May the President validly exercise his power under the 1987 Constitution to transfer funds from the savings of the Executive Department, and make a cross-border transfer of P3,000,000 to the COMELEC by way of augmentation? Is your answer the same if the transfer is treated as aid to the COMELEC? Explain your answer. (4%)


Give the limitations on the power of the Congress to enact the General Appropriations Act. Explain your answer. (5%)


A bank acquired a large tract of land as the highest bidder in the foreclosure sale of the mortgaged assets of its borrower. It appears that the land has been originally registered under the Torrens system in 1922 pursuant to the provisions of the Philippine Bill of 1902, the organic act of the Philippine Islands as a colony of the USA. Sec. 21 of the Philippine Bill of 1902 provided that “all valuable mineral deposits in public lands in the Philippine Islands, both surveyed and unsurveyed, are hereby declared to be free and open too exploration, occupation, and purchase, and the land in which they are found to occupation and purchase, by citizens of the United States, or of said Islands.” Sec. 27 of the law declared that a holder of the mineral claim so located was entitled to all the minerals that lie within his claim but he could not mine outside the boundary lines of his claim.

The 1935 Constitution expressly prohibited the alienation of natural resources except agricultural lands. Sec. 2, Art. XII of the 1987 Constitution contains a similar prohibition, and proclaims that all lands of public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests, or timber, wildilfe, flora, and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. This provision enunciates the Regalian Doctrine.

May the Government, on the basis of the Regalian Doctrine enunciated in the constitutional provisions, deny the bank its right as the owner of the mineral resources underneath the surface of its property as recognized under the Philippine Bill of 1902? Explain your answer. (5%)



Ambassador Robert of State Alpha committed a very serious crime while he headed his foreign mission in the Philippines. Is he subject to arrest by Philippine authorities? Explain your answer. (3%)


Extradition is the process pursuant to a treaty between two State parties for the surrender by the requested State to the custody of the requesting State of a fugitive criminal residing in the former. However, extradition depends on the application of two principles – the principle of specialty and the dual criminality principle. Explain these principles. (4%)


The President signs an agreement with his counterpart in another country involving reciprocity in the treatment of each other country’s nationals residing in the other’s territory. However, he does not submit the agreement to the Senate for concurrence.

Sec. 21, Art. VII of the Constitution provides that no treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective without such concurrence.

Is the agreement signed by the President effective despite the lack of Senate concurrence? Explain your answer. (4%)



Under the enrolled bill doctrine, the signing of a bill by both the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate and the certification by the secretaries of both Houses of Congress that the bill was passed on a certain date are conclusive on the bill’s due enactment. Assuming there is a conflict between the enrolled bill and the legislative journal, to the effect that the enrolled bill signed by the Senate President and eventually approved by the President turned out to be different from what the Senate actually passed as reflected in the legislative journal.

May the Senate President disregard the enrolled bill doctrine and consider his signature as invalid and of no effect? (2.5%)

May the President thereafter withdraw his signature? Explain your answer. (2.5%)


Sec. 26(2), Art. VI of the Constitution provide that no bill passed by either House of Congress shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days and printed copies of it in its final form have been distributed to the Members of the House three days before its passage.

Is there an exception to the provision? Explain your answer. (3%)


Sec. 17, Art. VI of the Constitution establishes an Electoral Tribunal for each of the Houses of Congress, and makes each Electoral Tribunal “the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members.” On the other hand, Sec. 2(1).C Art. IX of the Constitution grants to the COMELEC the power to enforce and administer all laws and regulations “relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall.”

Considering that there is no concurrence of jurisdiction between the Electoral Tribunals and the COMELEC, state when the jurisdiction of the Electoral Tribunals begins, and the COMELEC’s jurisdiction ends. Explain your answer. (4%)


The Congress establishes by law Philippine Funds, Inc., a private corporation, to receive foreign donations coming from abroad during national and local calamities and disasters, and to enable the unhampered and speedy disbursements of the donations through the mere action of its Board of Directors. Thereby, delays in the release of the donated funds occasioned by the stringent rules of procurement would be avoided. Also, the releases would not come under the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit (COA).

A. Is the law establishing Philippine Funds, Inc., constitutional? Explain your answer. (3%)

B. Can the Congress pass the law that would exempt foreign grants from the jurisdiction of the COA. Explain your answer. (3%)


Command responsibility pertains to the responsibility of commanders for crimes committed by subordinate members of the  armed forces or other persons subject to their control in international wars or domestic conflicts. The doctrine has now found application in civil actions for human rights abuses, and in proceedings seeking the privilege of the writ of amparo.What are the elements to be established in order to hold the superior or commander liable under the doctrine of command responsibility? (4%)

A. May the doctrine of command responsibility apply to the President for the abuses of the armed forces (AFP and PNP) given his unique role as the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces? Explain your answer. (4%)


To fulfill a campaign promise to the poor folk in a far-flung area in Mindanao, the President requested his friend, Pastor Roy, to devote his ministry to them. The President would pay Pastor Roy a monthly stipend of P50,000 from his discretionary fund, and would also erect a modest house of worship in the locality in an area of the latter’s choice.

Does the President thereby violate any provisions of the Constitution? Explain your answer. (3%)


A. According the Sec. 3, Art. VIII of the Constitution, the Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. What does the term “fiscal autonomy” signify? Explain your answer. (3%)

B. May a complaint for disbarment against the Ombudsman prosper during her incumbency? Explain your answer. (3%)

C. Sec. 3, Art. XI of the Constitution states that “[n]o impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of one year.” What constitutes initiation of impeachment proceedings under the provision? (3%)



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 26, 2017


[Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno’s commencement address before the Ateneo de Manila University, May 26, 2017.]

Thirty seven years ago, dear Loyolans, I stood in your place, about to take a place of honor and privilege as a graduate of Ateneo.

Three years later, Ninoy Aquino would be assassinated; by 1986, the dictator Marcos would flee the country. But on my graduation day in 1980, it was difficult to be certain of a future outside of martial law. I was at once optimistic and fearful. Optimistic about my career prospects as any Atenean would be, but fearful lest the long nights of martial law overshadowing our country never end.

I had actually prepared to talk with you in a more lighthearted and general manner on themes of justice, democracy and what it means to be an Atenean, but the declaration of Martial Law and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in Mindanao this Tuesday impressed upon me a more urgent and specific subject matter. So yesterday I discarded my prepared speech and resolved that today I would try to address the questions that must be in your minds and those of your parents. I thought it behooved me to give you a lens through which you could view present events and make decisions regarding your participation in the making of Philippine history.

Allow me to guess at the questions in your mind: Will this Martial Law declaration bring back the human rights violations and the depredations that characterized the martial law regime of 1972? Will investors leave the country? Will young people still have enough good jobs? Will our labor force be squeezed into more painful contortions of diaspora? Will our voices still be heard? The answer, my dear graduates, is “It depends.”

Our hopes for the future depend on whether the Executive Department, led by the President, the leadership and the entirety of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police, Department of Justice officials and prosecutors, the Chief Public Attorney and her public defenders will take sufficient care to abide by the Constitution and the laws even while Martial Law is in place. It depends on whether there will be abuse of the awesome powers that Martial Law gives the Armed Forces and the police.

It also depends on whether Congress and the Supreme Court will exercise their review powers appropriately over the declaration of Martial Law and the suspension of the privilege of writ of habeas corpus; and whether both houses of Congress and all courts will continue to function normally and well.

It also depends on whether certain independent constitutional bodies, namely the Ombudsman, the Commission on Human Rights, and the Commission on Audit will persist in discharging their proper functions.

Finally, it depends on whether you, my fellow Ateneans, together with the rest of the Filipino population, do your part to ensure that this declaration of Martial Law does not imperil your future.

Allow me to clarify that the powers to declare Martial Law and suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus are expressly granted President Duterte under the Constitution. When properly implemented, this should not by itself unduly burden our country. This power was granted to allow the President to resolve the situation “in case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it.” There may be questions before the Supreme Court regarding whether this can be extended to encompass situations akin to invasion or rebellion, and what circumstances constitute rebellion, but we will not venture into that for now. Suffice it to say that the Martial Law power is an immense power that can be used for good, to solve defined emergencies; but all earthly powers when abused can result in oppression.

If the Martial Law power is expressly granted the President, why are there fears expressed in some quarters regarding the declaration of President Duterte?

You must understand the history of a previous declaration of martial law, which occurred over forty years ago at the height of President Marcos’ power. Former Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee in Dizon v Eduardo described September 22, 1972 – the night Marcos announced Martial Law – as a dark evening when military authorities moved throughout the city to arrest and detain journalists and members of the opposition, upon orders of the President-turned dictator. Over the next two decades, enemies of the Marcos regime “disappeared,” were tortured or summarily executed.

The fears stoked by the terms “Martial Law” and “suspension of the writ of habeas corpus,” are therefore not surprising. But we must remember that these apprehensions were created by former President Marcos and the martial law that followed his 1972 declaration. If President Duterte and the aforementioned government authorities avoid the gross historical sins of Mister Marcos and his agents, then our country might reap the benefits of the legitimate use of the provisions on Martial Law in the 1987 Constitution.

You see, the 1987 Constitution in clear and unmistakable language rejects and absolutely prohibits the particular kind of martial law that began in our country in September of 1972. What do I mean by this? Allow me to refer to the decisions of our Supreme Court and other tribunals regarding the essential characteristics of the martial law dominating our country following its 1972 proclamation.

First, that period was characterized by widespread human rights violations in the form of murders, rape and other forms of torture, forced disappearances, arbitrary arrests and illegal detention, and forced isolation or hamletting of villages.

In the case of Mijares v. Ranada, the Supreme Court described the deep damage dealt to our institutions and the very fabric of our society as follows:

“Our martial law experience bore strange unwanted fruits, and we have yet to finish weeding out its bitter crop. While the restoration of freedom and the fundamental structures and processes of democracy have been much lauded, according to a significant number, the changes, however, have not sufficiently healed the colossal damage wrought under the oppressive conditions of the martial law period. The cries of justice for the tortured, the murdered, and the desaparecidos arouse outrage and sympathy in the hearts of the fair-minded, yet the dispensation of the appropriate relief due them cannot be extended through the same caprice or whim that characterized the ill-wind of martial rule. The damage done was not merely personal but institutional, and the proper rebuke to the iniquitous past has to involve the award of reparations due within the confines of the restored rule of law.”

Perhaps the most specific recount of the human rights atrocities during the Martial Law period beginning in 1972 can be found in a U.S. Decision, specifically that of the Hawaiian District Court in the case of In Re: Estate Of Ferdinand E. Marcos Human Rights Litigation, Celsa Hilao, et. al v. Estate Of Ferdinand E. Marcos. The case was a class action brought by victims or victims’ family members against the Estate of Marcos, seeking compensation for torture, disappearance or summary execution. The court made findings of human rights violations including numerous forms of torture such as beatings while blindfolded, rape and sexual assault, electric shock, and solitary confinement. The court noted:

“All of these forms of torture were used during “tactical interrogation,” attempting to elicit information from detainees concerning opposition to the MARCOS government. The more the detainees resisted, whether purposefully or out of lack of knowledge, the more serious the torture used.”

Second, the period of martial law that began in September of 1972 was likewise characterized by its heretofore unprecedented scale of plunder.

The case of Presidential Commission on Good Government v. Peña described the rule of Marcos as a “well-entrenched plundering regime of twenty years,” with respect to  “the ill-gotten wealth which rightfully belongs to the Republic although pillaged and plundered in the name of dummy or front companies, in several known instances carried out with the bold and mercenary, if not reckless, cooperation and assistance of members of the bar as supposed nominees.” The Supreme Court in that case “noted the magnitude of the regime’s organized pillage and the ingenuity of the plunderers and pillagers with the assistance of experts and the best legal minds in the market.” The ill-gotten assets identified so far by both the Presidential Commission on Good Governance and the Solicitor General are valued at approximately 5 billion US dollars.

Third, the martial law following the proclamation of 1972 was extremely oppressive, concentrating power only in Mister Marcos and his group. At one point, the Supreme Court, quoting Chief Justice Teehankee, characterized the time as “a return to the lese majeste when the voice of the King was the voice of God so that those touched by his absolute powers could only pray that the King acted prudently and wisely.” The dictator amassed so much power as the Commander-in-Chief, that he was able to take “absolute command of the nation and… the people could only trust that he would not fail them.”

We know what happened. Marcos failed our people. Those of us who were alive at the time bore witness to the human rights atrocities and the corruption caused by such absolute power.

Fourth, the martial law period of 1972 put the Philippines in an economic tailspin that saw us go from the second most vibrant economy in Asia to its sick man. In Marcos v. Manglapus, the Supreme Court noted that excessive foreign borrowing during the Marcos regime stagnated development and became one of the root causes of widespread poverty, leaving the economy in a precarious state. In Republic v. Sandiganbayan, the Court described the economic havoc created by the authoritarian regime in this manner:

At the time that the government of former President Marcos was driven from power, the country’s debt was over twenty-six billion US dollars; and the indications were that “illegally acquired wealth” of the deposed president alone, not counting that of his relatives and cronies, was in the aggregate amount of from five to ten billion US dollars, the bulk of it being deposited and hidden abroad.”

These are only a few excerpts from some of the many decisions of the highest court of the land that memorialize for all of history the atrocities committed during the era heralded by the 1972 declaration of martial law. They may not be the most heart-rending of accounts due to the necessary haste with which I compiled them, but I encourage you to do further reading on these and similar cases. These excerpts together with unrefuted historical accounts are a testament to our country’s resolve to never again allow ourselves to return to those dark and terrible times.

Thus the 1987 Constitution clearly says:

A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.

As we face the days following President Duterte’s declaration of martial law in Mindanao, it behooves us to ask what we can do in the present, with the time that is given to us, to ensure that the horrors of martial law that followed the 1972 declaration do not happen again.

For if being an Atenean means anything, it is that each of us — individually, and as a member of the Ateneo as an institution — bears a great deal of responsibility for the well-being of this country. And this responsibility entails leading not by possessing power for power’s sake, but by sacrificial example, by dying to ourselves and taking up our crosses daily. If power is to be granted to an Atenean, then such power must be exercised the way Christ exercised his leadership, by being a servant first, to the Father, and to His brothers and sisters.

These are times when everything that can be shaken is being shaken, when institutions are being challenged to their very foundations, and basic ideas of decency and human dignity are being violated with great impunity. These are times more than any other that will sorely test the Atenean’s capacity to distinguish right from wrong and the Atenean’s ability to act in service of what is right, and true, and good.

Do not be discouraged, for you are well-equipped for the challenges of these times. You only need to look within and around you and reflect on the Atenean principles inculcated in you over the years –

Magis, or the constant pursuit of improvement and excellence, for difficult times require extraordinary people.

AMDG! For the greater glory of God — for these are times when our faith will be tested, our paths will be dark and full of shadows, and only by surrendering all our actions to God may we continue towards the light.

One Big Fight! More than a cheer used in our basketball games, One Big Fight embodies the wholehearted passion and dedication that must fuel all our actions.

But the most fundamental Atenean value today is that of being a person for others. To be an Atenean is to serve — compassionately, selflessly, with unceasing dedication. To be an Atenean is to constantly continue the work of addressing others’ needs; to think broadly, not merely in terms of impact on one’s self, but impact on one’s community and country. To be an Atenean is to deeply and completely understand that it is in service to others that our lives take on their full meaning. To be an Atenean is to forsake a life of self-centered safety for a life of service.

To be a person for others is to commit to a just and noble cause greater than oneself.

Given the present day, when the possibility of history repeating itself looms imminent, no cause requires your commitment as much as the cause of human rights, justice, and democracy, themes you have aptly chosen.

For today, people’s fundamental human rights and freedoms, the core of our democracy, face grave and blatant threats. The culture of impunity is on the rise. People are pressured to favor the easy choice over the right choice: expediency over due process; convenient labeling over fairness; the unlawful termination of human life over rehabilitation.

You need to make a stand, dear Ateneans. And to make a stand you must act. More than merely ruminating on the idea of justice, I call on each of you to confront the common injustices of our society and seek to address them. I urge you to speak out with truth even against the overwhelming tide of popular opinion and reach out to the oppressed and disenfranchised. When you face threats to the sanctity of human rights or the stability of our democracy, give your all to protect these freedoms. Give your all to protect our nation and our people.

Stand up and give One Big Fight. As I stated in my speech to the lawyers in the Integrated Bar of the Philippines National Convention last March 23, we are not fighting a person or an establishment but a culture, a pattern that pervades our society today. It is a pattern of apathy, rage, and despair: one that began when people learned to tolerate wrong, stopped hoping, and ceased caring.

I understand that the task before you is immense, but I have no doubt you are more than up to the challenge. For you have been honed over your years in the Ateneo to fulfill your calling in extraordinary ways.

That is why I do not feel only hope when I look at you – my heart is filled with grateful gladness. Throughout the countless calamities that have struck the country, Ateneans have always been among the first to respond and help. Unstintingly and without hesitation, Ateneans have reached out, time and time again, to complete strangers — giving of themselves to people they may never even meet.

Last year, when the history of our nation was subjected to attempts at revision, you were among the first to speak up. I saw young men and women from the Ateneo spill out into the streets, furious and indignant, speaking up against this distortion of our history and reaching out to show fellow Filipinos that they were not alone. As a fellow Atenean, I understood that this passionate outpouring of righteous anger sprang from a deep understanding of what it means to be a person for others.

Know that being a person for others and standing for human rights, justice, and democracy are one and the same. To stand for human rights is to value others’ freedoms as much as you value your own. To stand for justice is to oppose any attempts to value one group’s freedoms more than those of others. To stand for democracy is to love your country and your people so fully that you will act to ensure democratic processes are followed despite great personal cost. To stand for all of these is to sacrifice yourself so that others may know freedom, safety, and all the fullness of life.

Know that you are not alone. You will not be alone. Have the courage to stand.

My prayers are with you, young Ateneans. As you face this crossroad and move on to a new chapter of your lives, may the Lord bless and keep you; may He make His face shine on you and be gracious to you; may the Lord turn His face towards you and give you peace.

Mabuhay kayo, class of 2017! Make us proud!



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 26, 2017


[Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno’s commencement address before the Ateneo de Manila University, May 26, 2017.]

Thirty seven years ago, dear Loyolans, I stood in your place, about to take a place of honor and privilege as a graduate of Ateneo.

Three years later, Ninoy Aquino would be assassinated; by 1986, the dictator Marcos would flee the country. But on my graduation day in 1980, it was difficult to be certain of a future outside of martial law. I was at once optimistic and fearful. Optimistic about my career prospects as any Atenean would be, but fearful lest the long nights of martial law overshadowing our country never end.

I had actually prepared to talk with you in a more lighthearted and general manner on themes of justice, democracy and what it means to be an Atenean, but the declaration of Martial Law and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in Mindanao this Tuesday impressed upon me a more urgent and specific subject matter. So yesterday I discarded my prepared speech and resolved that today I would try to address the questions that must be in your minds and those of your parents. I thought it behooved me to give you a lens through which you could view present events and make decisions regarding your participation in the making of Philippine history.

Allow me to guess at the questions in your mind: Will this Martial Law declaration bring back the human rights violations and the depredations that characterized the martial law regime of 1972? Will investors leave the country? Will young people still have enough good jobs? Will our labor force be squeezed into more painful contortions of diaspora? Will our voices still be heard? The answer, my dear graduates, is “It depends.”

Our hopes for the future depend on whether the Executive Department, led by the President, the leadership and the entirety of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police, Department of Justice officials and prosecutors, the Chief Public Attorney and her public defenders will take sufficient care to abide by the Constitution and the laws even while Martial Law is in place. It depends on whether there will be abuse of the awesome powers that Martial Law gives the Armed Forces and the police.

It also depends on whether Congress and the Supreme Court will exercise their review powers appropriately over the declaration of Martial Law and the suspension of the privilege of writ of habeas corpus; and whether both houses of Congress and all courts will continue to function normally and well.

It also depends on whether certain independent constitutional bodies, namely the Ombudsman, the Commission on Human Rights, and the Commission on Audit will persist in discharging their proper functions.

Finally, it depends on whether you, my fellow Ateneans, together with the rest of the Filipino population, do your part to ensure that this declaration of Martial Law does not imperil your future.

Allow me to clarify that the powers to declare Martial Law and suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus are expressly granted President Duterte under the Constitution. When properly implemented, this should not by itself unduly burden our country. This power was granted to allow the President to resolve the situation “in case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it.” There may be questions before the Supreme Court regarding whether this can be extended to encompass situations akin to invasion or rebellion, and what circumstances constitute rebellion, but we will not venture into that for now. Suffice it to say that the Martial Law power is an immense power that can be used for good, to solve defined emergencies; but all earthly powers when abused can result in oppression.

If the Martial Law power is expressly granted the President, why are there fears expressed in some quarters regarding the declaration of President Duterte?

You must understand the history of a previous declaration of martial law, which occurred over forty years ago at the height of President Marcos’ power. Former Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee in Dizon v Eduardo described September 22, 1972 – the night Marcos announced Martial Law – as a dark evening when military authorities moved throughout the city to arrest and detain journalists and members of the opposition, upon orders of the President-turned dictator. Over the next two decades, enemies of the Marcos regime “disappeared,” were tortured or summarily executed.

The fears stoked by the terms “Martial Law” and “suspension of the writ of habeas corpus,” are therefore not surprising. But we must remember that these apprehensions were created by former President Marcos and the martial law that followed his 1972 declaration. If President Duterte and the aforementioned government authorities avoid the gross historical sins of Mister Marcos and his agents, then our country might reap the benefits of the legitimate use of the provisions on Martial Law in the 1987 Constitution.

You see, the 1987 Constitution in clear and unmistakable language rejects and absolutely prohibits the particular kind of martial law that began in our country in September of 1972. What do I mean by this? Allow me to refer to the decisions of our Supreme Court and other tribunals regarding the essential characteristics of the martial law dominating our country following its 1972 proclamation.

First, that period was characterized by widespread human rights violations in the form of murders, rape and other forms of torture, forced disappearances, arbitrary arrests and illegal detention, and forced isolation or hamletting of villages.

In the case of Mijares v. Ranada, the Supreme Court described the deep damage dealt to our institutions and the very fabric of our society as follows:

“Our martial law experience bore strange unwanted fruits, and we have yet to finish weeding out its bitter crop. While the restoration of freedom and the fundamental structures and processes of democracy have been much lauded, according to a significant number, the changes, however, have not sufficiently healed the colossal damage wrought under the oppressive conditions of the martial law period. The cries of justice for the tortured, the murdered, and the desaparecidos arouse outrage and sympathy in the hearts of the fair-minded, yet the dispensation of the appropriate relief due them cannot be extended through the same caprice or whim that characterized the ill-wind of martial rule. The damage done was not merely personal but institutional, and the proper rebuke to the iniquitous past has to involve the award of reparations due within the confines of the restored rule of law.”

Perhaps the most specific recount of the human rights atrocities during the Martial Law period beginning in 1972 can be found in a U.S. Decision, specifically that of the Hawaiian District Court in the case of In Re: Estate Of Ferdinand E. Marcos Human Rights Litigation, Celsa Hilao, et. al v. Estate Of Ferdinand E. Marcos. The case was a class action brought by victims or victims’ family members against the Estate of Marcos, seeking compensation for torture, disappearance or summary execution. The court made findings of human rights violations including numerous forms of torture such as beatings while blindfolded, rape and sexual assault, electric shock, and solitary confinement. The court noted:

“All of these forms of torture were used during “tactical interrogation,” attempting to elicit information from detainees concerning opposition to the MARCOS government. The more the detainees resisted, whether purposefully or out of lack of knowledge, the more serious the torture used.”

Second, the period of martial law that began in September of 1972 was likewise characterized by its heretofore unprecedented scale of plunder.

The case of Presidential Commission on Good Government v. Peña described the rule of Marcos as a “well-entrenched plundering regime of twenty years,” with respect to  “the ill-gotten wealth which rightfully belongs to the Republic although pillaged and plundered in the name of dummy or front companies, in several known instances carried out with the bold and mercenary, if not reckless, cooperation and assistance of members of the bar as supposed nominees.” The Supreme Court in that case “noted the magnitude of the regime’s organized pillage and the ingenuity of the plunderers and pillagers with the assistance of experts and the best legal minds in the market.” The ill-gotten assets identified so far by both the Presidential Commission on Good Governance and the Solicitor General are valued at approximately 5 billion US dollars.

Third, the martial law following the proclamation of 1972 was extremely oppressive, concentrating power only in Mister Marcos and his group. At one point, the Supreme Court, quoting Chief Justice Teehankee, characterized the time as “a return to the lese majeste when the voice of the King was the voice of God so that those touched by his absolute powers could only pray that the King acted prudently and wisely.” The dictator amassed so much power as the Commander-in-Chief, that he was able to take “absolute command of the nation and… the people could only trust that he would not fail them.”

We know what happened. Marcos failed our people. Those of us who were alive at the time bore witness to the human rights atrocities and the corruption caused by such absolute power.

Fourth, the martial law period of 1972 put the Philippines in an economic tailspin that saw us go from the second most vibrant economy in Asia to its sick man. In Marcos v. Manglapus, the Supreme Court noted that excessive foreign borrowing during the Marcos regime stagnated development and became one of the root causes of widespread poverty, leaving the economy in a precarious state. In Republic v. Sandiganbayan, the Court described the economic havoc created by the authoritarian regime in this manner:

At the time that the government of former President Marcos was driven from power, the country’s debt was over twenty-six billion US dollars; and the indications were that “illegally acquired wealth” of the deposed president alone, not counting that of his relatives and cronies, was in the aggregate amount of from five to ten billion US dollars, the bulk of it being deposited and hidden abroad.”

These are only a few excerpts from some of the many decisions of the highest court of the land that memorialize for all of history the atrocities committed during the era heralded by the 1972 declaration of martial law. They may not be the most heart-rending of accounts due to the necessary haste with which I compiled them, but I encourage you to do further reading on these and similar cases. These excerpts together with unrefuted historical accounts are a testament to our country’s resolve to never again allow ourselves to return to those dark and terrible times.

Thus the 1987 Constitution clearly says:

A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.

As we face the days following President Duterte’s declaration of martial law in Mindanao, it behooves us to ask what we can do in the present, with the time that is given to us, to ensure that the horrors of martial law that followed the 1972 declaration do not happen again.

For if being an Atenean means anything, it is that each of us — individually, and as a member of the Ateneo as an institution — bears a great deal of responsibility for the well-being of this country. And this responsibility entails leading not by possessing power for power’s sake, but by sacrificial example, by dying to ourselves and taking up our crosses daily. If power is to be granted to an Atenean, then such power must be exercised the way Christ exercised his leadership, by being a servant first, to the Father, and to His brothers and sisters.

These are times when everything that can be shaken is being shaken, when institutions are being challenged to their very foundations, and basic ideas of decency and human dignity are being violated with great impunity. These are times more than any other that will sorely test the Atenean’s capacity to distinguish right from wrong and the Atenean’s ability to act in service of what is right, and true, and good.

Do not be discouraged, for you are well-equipped for the challenges of these times. You only need to look within and around you and reflect on the Atenean principles inculcated in you over the years –

Magis, or the constant pursuit of improvement and excellence, for difficult times require extraordinary people.

AMDG! For the greater glory of God — for these are times when our faith will be tested, our paths will be dark and full of shadows, and only by surrendering all our actions to God may we continue towards the light.

One Big Fight! More than a cheer used in our basketball games, One Big Fight embodies the wholehearted passion and dedication that must fuel all our actions.

But the most fundamental Atenean value today is that of being a person for others. To be an Atenean is to serve — compassionately, selflessly, with unceasing dedication. To be an Atenean is to constantly continue the work of addressing others’ needs; to think broadly, not merely in terms of impact on one’s self, but impact on one’s community and country. To be an Atenean is to deeply and completely understand that it is in service to others that our lives take on their full meaning. To be an Atenean is to forsake a life of self-centered safety for a life of service.

To be a person for others is to commit to a just and noble cause greater than oneself.

Given the present day, when the possibility of history repeating itself looms imminent, no cause requires your commitment as much as the cause of human rights, justice, and democracy, themes you have aptly chosen.

For today, people’s fundamental human rights and freedoms, the core of our democracy, face grave and blatant threats. The culture of impunity is on the rise. People are pressured to favor the easy choice over the right choice: expediency over due process; convenient labeling over fairness; the unlawful termination of human life over rehabilitation.

You need to make a stand, dear Ateneans. And to make a stand you must act. More than merely ruminating on the idea of justice, I call on each of you to confront the common injustices of our society and seek to address them. I urge you to speak out with truth even against the overwhelming tide of popular opinion and reach out to the oppressed and disenfranchised. When you face threats to the sanctity of human rights or the stability of our democracy, give your all to protect these freedoms. Give your all to protect our nation and our people.

Stand up and give One Big Fight. As I stated in my speech to the lawyers in the Integrated Bar of the Philippines National Convention last March 23, we are not fighting a person or an establishment but a culture, a pattern that pervades our society today. It is a pattern of apathy, rage, and despair: one that began when people learned to tolerate wrong, stopped hoping, and ceased caring.

I understand that the task before you is immense, but I have no doubt you are more than up to the challenge. For you have been honed over your years in the Ateneo to fulfill your calling in extraordinary ways.

That is why I do not feel only hope when I look at you – my heart is filled with grateful gladness. Throughout the countless calamities that have struck the country, Ateneans have always been among the first to respond and help. Unstintingly and without hesitation, Ateneans have reached out, time and time again, to complete strangers — giving of themselves to people they may never even meet.

Last year, when the history of our nation was subjected to attempts at revision, you were among the first to speak up. I saw young men and women from the Ateneo spill out into the streets, furious and indignant, speaking up against this distortion of our history and reaching out to show fellow Filipinos that they were not alone. As a fellow Atenean, I understood that this passionate outpouring of righteous anger sprang from a deep understanding of what it means to be a person for others.

Know that being a person for others and standing for human rights, justice, and democracy are one and the same. To stand for human rights is to value others’ freedoms as much as you value your own. To stand for justice is to oppose any attempts to value one group’s freedoms more than those of others. To stand for democracy is to love your country and your people so fully that you will act to ensure democratic processes are followed despite great personal cost. To stand for all of these is to sacrifice yourself so that others may know freedom, safety, and all the fullness of life.

Know that you are not alone. You will not be alone. Have the courage to stand.

My prayers are with you, young Ateneans. As you face this crossroad and move on to a new chapter of your lives, may the Lord bless and keep you; may He make His face shine on you and be gracious to you; may the Lord turn His face towards you and give you peace.

Mabuhay kayo, class of 2017! Make us proud!



A person’s status or station in life is a matter that should never be a subject of ridicule or joke whatever the circumstances may be, especially when the author is a public official.

It does not matter whether the woman being called na-ano lang (a pejorative term pertaining to an impregnated unmarried woman) is of known social status or of a lowly class. Every person is duty-bound to accord another person unconditional respect, and this respect extends to verbal acts. Calling somebody na-ano lang is an outright expression of disrespect as this expression regards the other person as a lowly object.


[Photo credit: Atty. Dennis Gorecho]

Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 4, 2017

Note to 40.94% who did not pass the Bar


Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 3, 2017

LagLag sa Bar (LLB)


Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 3, 2017



1 CALAM, KAREN MAE L. University of San Carlos 89.0500
2 KHIO, ALANNA GAYLE ASHLEY B. Silliman University 88.9500
3 LAO, FIONA CRISTY D. University of San Carlos 88.8000
3 LIONG, ATHALIA B. Andres Bonifacio College 88.8000
4 BABAYEN-ON, ALLANA MAE A. University of San Agustin 88.7500
5 MORILLA, JUSTIN RYAN D. Ateneo de Davao University 88.4000
6 CAMARAO, MARK DAVE M. Northwestern University 88.1000
7 MOMONGAN, ANNE MARGARET E. University of San Carlos 87.8000
8 GOMEZ, JEFFERSON L. University of San Carlos 87.7000
9 GONZALES, NIA RACHELLE M. University of Batangas 87.5000
9 YBIO, MARIE CHIELO H. Silliman University 87.5000
10 LIU, ANDREW STEPHEN D. Silliman University 87.4500


A total of 3,747 out of 6,344 (59.06 percent) passed the 2016 bar examination. This year’s passing percentage is the second highest since 1946. The highest passing percentage with an average of 75 percent was in 1954 with 75.17, the same year when Justice Florenz Regalado topped the bar exam with a record high of 96.7 percent.

The examiners for the 2016 Bar Examinations were:

Political Law and Public International Law Retired Supreme Court Associate Justice Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura
Labor Laws and Social Legislation Court of Appeals Associate Justice Magdangal M. De Leon
Civil Law CA Justice Japar B. Dimaampao
Taxation Court of Tax Appeals Justice Lovell R. Bautista
Mercantile Law CA Justice Ramon Paul L. Hernando
Criminal Law CA Justice Victoria Isabel A. Paredes
Remedial Law SC Justice Noel G. Tijam
Legal Ethics CA Justice Myra V. Garcia-Fernandez
Chairman Associate Justice Presbitero Velasco Jr.



  1. AALA, Victoria L.
    2. ABAD, Imelda Theresa C.
    3. ABADILLA, Lovely C.
    4. ABANCE, Denise Jane S.
    5. ABANGAD, Mohamad Mon-em I.
    6. ABAO, Gennelyn M.
    7. ABARCA, Kennedy R.
    8. ABARCAR, Anna Mari E.
    9. ABASTA, Eloisa D.
    10. ABATING, Hermo Dennis A.
    11. ABATON, Mohammad Nasif M.
    12. ABAYA, Pauline Mae C.
    13. ABAYARI, Maria Lourdes B.
    14. ABAÑO, Joanna Christine C.
    15. ABBAS, Abuali M.
    16. ABBAS, Mhyra Jane M.
    17. ABBU, JR., Jose Pepe S.
    18. ABDON-ROCES, Eunice C.
    19. ABDULLAH, Juffali A.
    20. ABDULRAHIM, Jonaifa T.
    21. ABEJERO, Marian Jo Silma E.
    22. ABEJO, Joanne Tricia M.
    23. ABELEDA, Arnelson C.
    24. ABELIDA, Richel B.
    25. ABELITA, Isabella S.
    26. ABELO, Shyrell Morena Marie C.
    27. ABERIN, Ma. Bernice Doreen M.
    28. ABESAMIS, Austinne Joyce D.
    29. ABIBAS, Erzena P.
    30. ABIS, Ariel A.
    31. ABRACERO, Larissa S.
    32. ABREJERA, Naomi Janille C.
    33. ABRENICA, Concepteone Marree A.
    34. ABRERA, Jayson V.
    35. ABUCEJO, Vincent Tito B.
    36. ABUEL, Regine Jessica D.
    37. ABUEL, Sarah Jane C.
    38. ABUL, JR., Douglas V.
    39. ACABA, Carolina A.
    40. ACAS, II, Jose Realito A.
    41. ACEDILLO, Rey Daniel S.
    42. ACERO, Feil Anthony B.
    43. ACERO, Ruth Abigail R.
    44. ACERON, Ace Gregory F.
    45. ACHA, Emily P.
    46. ACHAY, Maria Flora D.
    47. ACLAM, Sheryl B.
    48. ACOSTA, Judelyn B.
    49. ACOSTA, Lara Mae N.
    50. ACUBA, Liana Marice J.
    51. ADALEM, Miguel Paolo L.
    52. ADARAYAN, Risty T.
    53. ADARME-ROVERO, Mary Grecelle G.
    54. ADOLFO, Ana Frances G.
    55. ADOLFO, Siena Katrina K.
    56. ADOLFO-MADRID, Alphecca B.
    57. ADRALES, Catherine Grace L.
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    59. ADVINCULA, Bai Hundra Cassandra Dominique N.
    60. AFABLE, Karla Alexis M.
    61. AGASANG, Mark Anthony R.
    62. AGBAYANI, Aimee May D.
    63. AGBAYANI, Czar Ian R.
    64. AGBAYANI, JR., John Glenn C.
    65. AGCAOILI, Enrico V.
    66. AGCAOILI, Roscoe A.
    67. AGDON, Aiza R.
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    69. AGGALAO-TICANGAN, Esperanza LM.
    70. AGGUEBAN, Jovito T.
    71. AGLIAM, Lorely Christine R.
    72. AGMATA, Cherry A.
    73. AGODILLA, Kristel G.
    74. AGORILLA, Francis Arvy G.
    75. AGOSILA, Maureen Therese G.
    76. AGOT, Randy R.
    77. AGUADO, Cheysser Anne V.
    78. AGUAS, Aldrin R.
    79. AGUILA, Carl Vincent E.
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    81. AGUILA, Dario V.
    82. AGUILA, Francielle P.
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    85. AGUILA, Pamela Joannie M.
    86. AGUILA, Patricia Ann A.
    87. AGUILAR, Angelica Joy Q.
    88. AGUILAR, Jake Toby T.
    89. AGUILAR, Joana Rose D.
    90. AGUILAR, II, Sir Frederick C.
    91. AGUINALDO, Bleszie D.
    92. AGUINALDO, Ma. Janelli Erika K.
    93. AGUIRRE, Bernadette A.
    94. AGUIRRE, Nolaida
    95. AGUNDAY, Armesh N.
    96. AGUSTIN, Diane Angeline T.
    97. AGUSTIN, Johanne Emmanuel G.
    98. AGUSTIN, Kimberly Jayne R.
    99. AGUSTIN, Stella P.
    100. ALA, Joanne R.
    101. ALABA, Johannes Jude U.
    102. ALABASTRO, Bruneson I.
    103. ALAMAG, Cherie Mae R.
    104. ALAMEDA, Joy Catherine P.
    105. ALAN, Raphy T.
    106. ALANO, Allan Enrico E.
    107. ALANO, Erich Justine V.
    108. ALARTE, Kierwin R.
    109. ALAUYA-BAYANAN, Aina Sania A.
    110. ALAUYA-SANI, Norossana A.
    111. ALBA, Avvy Cristabelle Z.
    112. ALBA, JR., Benito A.
    113. ALBACETE, Mae Therese C.
    114. ALBAO, Tyron Jan G.
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    116. ALBEOS, Centvie Joie F.
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    119. ALBRECHT, John Jason N.
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    121. ALCANTARA, Cherie Maryse O.
    122. ALCANTARA, Evangeline D.
    123. ALCANTARA, Sandy D.
    124. ALCANTARA, Violah B.
    125. ALCANTARA, Walfrido L.
    126. ALCAZAR, Jona May M.
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    128. ALCID, Jo-ann R.
    129. ALCONABA, Mary Rose B.
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    144. ALFANTE, Daryl B.
    145. ALFEREZ, Angeline Rose A.
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    148. ALI, JR., Camad C.
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    153. ALINA-LLABADO, Jacqueline A.
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    160. ALMARIO, Rich L.
    161. ALMEDA, Luis Francisco T.
    162. ALMENDRAS, Enrica S.
    163. ALMERO, III, Glicerio S.
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    186. AMANTE, Chino Daniel L.
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    188. AMASEC, JR., Arthur B.
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    226. ANGANGAN, JR., Alfrendo T.
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    263. AQUINO, JR., Paterno S.
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    588. BRAZAL, Ricardo G.
    589. BRIBON, Christian Benedict T.
    590. BRIGINO, Catherine R.
    591. BRIGOLI, Alain Jan B.
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    599. BRUSOLA, Johnston R.
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    602. BUCCAT-VILLAMIN, Rozzanne Victoria G.
    603. BUCLIG, Jocelyn B.
    604. BUDO, Gladys Marie S.
    605. BUENAGUA, Jose Bartholomew B.
    606. BUENAVENTURA, Jenny C.
    607. BUENDIA, Glen Camille G.
    608. BUENO, Jhoey C.
    609. BUENO, Melissa J.
    610. BUENSALIDA, Vladimir M.
    611. BUGAYONG, Anne Caroline C.
    612. BUHAY, Juvy Anne M.
    613. BULADO, Raffy R.
    614. BULIYAT, Claire B.
    615. BULOTANO, JR., Romeo R.
    616. BULWAYAN, Jocelyn R.
    617. BUMACAS, Melanie F.
    618. BUMANGLAG, Candida Dorothy Swerte D.
    619. BUNCAD, Glenn B.
    620. BUNSA, Jamila T.
    621. BUNYI-DE LEON, Judith Marie G.
    622. BURAGA, JR., Oscar D.
    623. BURCE, Rhonaliza B.
    624. BURDEOS, Rhea Jurjette R.
    625. BURRO, Ceril Lyn L.
    626. BUTAY, Ferdinand M.
    627. BUTRON, Princess May M.
    628. BUYCO, Kevin Angelo J.
    629. BUYTRAGO, Miramie J.
    630. BUYUCCAN, Percy Ruth N.
    631. BUZMION, Moses L.
    632. CAAYAO, Karen Ann D.
    633. CABACANG, Belteshazzar L.
    634. CABAL, Billie Kristel D.
    635. CABALES, Moujeck Steve O.
    636. CABALLERO, Rafaello Angelo R.
    637. CABALLERO, JR., Arsenio E.
    638. CABALLES, Regidor V.
    639. CABALSE, Brenda R.
    640. CABANGON, Ivo L.
    641. CABANGON, Rem A.
    642. CABANILLA, Cleo Marjo C.
    643. CABARDO, Ryonell R.
    644. CABARON, Jose Gabriel A.
    645. CABARRIBAN, Rogelio A.
    646. CABARTEJA, Anthony C.
    647. CABASAG, Mark Anthony C.
    648. CABATINGAN, Paul Cayetano L.
    649. CABATO, Ellora Kate D.
    650. CABATOS, Daisy Gie T.
    651. CABE, III, Adam Anthony S.
    652. CABELLO, Inno A.
    653. CABILIN, Erwin W.
    654. CABRERA, Charmaine Joy L.
    655. CABRERA, Dan Yunus C.
    656. CABRERA, Irish Marie V.
    657. CABRERA, Mary Geanellie M.
    658. CABRERA-LEHNERT, Nelfa C.
    659. CABUNAGAN, Elizabeth Dyhn A.
    660. CABUNGAN, Maria Angelica A.
    661. CABUSLAY, Erick John S.
    662. CACANINDIN, Rhona B.
    663. CACHO, Charina Flor A.
    664. CADENA-VILLARUZ, Retzel Amour P.
    665. CADIZ, Danielle S.
    666. CADORNA, Dianne Irish A.
    667. CADORNA, Maxim D.
    668. CADUGO, JR., Roben B.
    669. CAERLANG, Maribel H.
    670. CAGAHASTIAN, David Ricardo S.
    671. CAGASCA, Rubee Ruth C.
    672. CAGUING, Joelore M.
    673. CAGULA, Jane Carressa Mae T.
    674. CAHOY, Moshi Ariel S.
    675. CAIDOY, Harrold Glenn P.
    676. CAISIDO, Michael Ray R.
    677. CAJAYON, Eunice J.
    678. CAJES, Nancy Jermae N.
    679. CAJETA, Kurt F.
    680. CAJUCOM, Monica S.
    681. CALABUNG, JR., Reynaldo R.
    682. CALACAR, Edgar L.
    683. CALACHAN, Paul Allan P.
    684. CALALANG, Marichell S.
    685. CALAM, Karen Mae L.
    686. CALAMAYA, Romeo Dax B.
    687. CALAMDAG, Clarissa Y.
    688. CALANGI, Gretchen D.
    689. CALASAGSAG-CANTUBA, Ma. Strella C.
    690. CALAYAN, Clara Maria Beatriz S.
    691. CALAYAN-MEDINA, Sheryll Joy L.
    692. CALAYCAY, Jasmine Charo L.
    693. CALBAN-DALIGNOC, Cathyrene A.
    694. CALDERON, Gerard L.
    695. CALDERON, III, Leonardo V.
    696. CALI, Faisal P.
    697. CALIMAG, Melvin G.
    698. CALIPAY, Jane Kate S.
    699. CALIPAYAN, Reshiel B.
    700. CALIWAG, Charilyn R.
    701. CALLANGAN, Ma. Ivana F.
    702. CALLEJA, Joseph Peter J.
    703. CALONGCAGON, John Patrick G.
    704. CALPATURA, Marian G.
    705. CALSIYAO, Sherbourne A.
    706. CALSO, Zoiline Jennifer P.
    707. CALTINO, Marlon L.
    708. CALUCAG, Hazel M.
    709. CALUGAY, Borgy V.
    710. CALUGAY, Katrina M.
    711. CALULUT, Joseph Frederick R.
    712. CALVEZ, Reinalee Susan N.
    713. CALVO, Kirsten Kate F.
    714. CALVO, Mario Dennis A.
    715. CAMACHO, Kaycee Lyn V.
    716. CAMACHO, Leonardo M.
    717. CAMALON, John Mark A.
    718. CAMARA, Earl Andrew M.
    719. CAMARAO, Mark Dave M.
    720. CAMARSE, Nemuel R.
    721. CAMAYANG, Ma. Milagros P.
    722. CAMAYANG, Mary-jane M.
    723. CAMBA, Denise Bernadine B.
    724. CAMBA, Kathreen Joyce S.
    725. CAMBALIZA, Jarene Eurice C.
    726. CAMBRI, Maria Gicel T.
    727. CAMELLO, Celeste B.
    728. CAMENDAN, Ronaisa L.
    729. CAMINADE, Margeon G.
    730. CAMINONG, Leah C.
    731. CAMMAYO, Mary Grace M.
    732. CAMMAYO, III, Nicasio T.
    733. CAMPANER-POQUITA, Cheryl P.
    734. CAMPOS, Betty L.
    735. CAMPOSAGRADO, Ma. Gerrylin S.
    736. CAMPOSANO, Jose Karlo M.
    737. CAMSOL, Haryeth M.
    738. CANADA, Lady Jade Q.
    739. CANADA, Pearl Angeli Q.
    740. CANLAS, Gilbert Y.
    741. CANLAS, Jacqueline E.
    742. CANONES, Dulce Jasmin A.
    743. CANOY, Junmar V.
    744. CANTOS, Joan Reina L.
    745. CANTOS, Raymond Geronimo A.
    746. CANTOS-JALECO, Mariene Queensie P.
    747. CAPADOSA, Phillip Bernard H.
    748. CAPELLAN, Clarolyn Jane A.
    749. CAPISTRANO, Penelope L.
    750. CAPONONG, JR., Samuel S.
    751. CAPUCION, Jadea Ezra M.
    752. CAPUTOL, Danica Patricia D.
    753. CARAG, Dane Caceus Marionne M.
    754. CARAIG, Ronald P.
    755. CARANAY, Victoria Alessandra C.
    756. CARASAQUIT, Emmanuel E.
    757. CARASIG, Ramon Gabriel K.
    758. CARBERO, Therese Claire F.
    759. CARBONEL, Jeff Kevin C.
    760. CARBONELL, Patrick Chris DG.
    761. CARDAÑO, JR., Oscar M.
    762. CARDENAS, Ma. Cheryl P.
    763. CARDONA, Rinna Rose G.
    764. CARESOSA, Siegfred L.
    765. CARIAS, Jasper M.
    766. CARIGA, Joan D.
    767. CARIÑO, Dominique Christine M.
    768. CARLOS, Marie Rose C.
    769. CARLOTA, Amanda Josephine T.
    770. CARPINA, Daniel V.
    771. CARPIO, Reina Geeline R.
    772. CARRACEDO, Christopher V.
    773. CARRIEDO, Ruel B.
    774. CARSKIT, Ven Lorenz R.
    775. CARTAGENA, Naomi G.
    776. CARUNGUI, Billy Jim T.
    777. CASABAR, Carlo S.
    778. CASABUENA, April R.
    779. CASABUENA, Roger I.
    780. CASAN, Hasnia P.
    781. CASAS, Kirsten Erika A.
    782. CASAÑA, Shiendy Loufer D.
    783. CASIANO, Mark Anthony C.
    784. CASIL, Leo Angelo P.
    785. CASILA, Ma. Erika Amor D.
    786. CASILLA, Paul Vincent M.
    787. CASIMIRO, II, Ricardo H.
    788. CASIPLE, Cris T.
    789. CASIQUIN, Rica Ysabelle L.
    790. CASITA, Joanna May R.
    791. CASIW, Blair G.
    792. CASQUEJO, April R.
    793. CASQUEJO, Ivy Anne I.
    794. CASTAÑARES, Mc Aldous C.
    795. CASTAÑEDA, Jocelyn P.
    796. CASTAÑEDA, Julie Rose G.
    797. CASTAÑEDA, Niña Francia D.
    798. CASTELO, Ana Isabel F.
    799. CASTELO, II, Enrico Edmundo D.
    800. CASTIGADOR, Rena Joy C.
    801. CASTILLO, Baby Trina M.
    802. CASTILLO, Edgardo R.
    803. CASTILLO, Emilyn Cristina M.
    804. CASTILLO, Hazeille Goldamae B.
    805. CASTILLO, Jeanne Marie Vernice V.
    806. CASTILLO, Joemar A.
    807. CASTILLO, Kristine L.
    808. CASTILLO, Lauryel N.
    809. CASTILLO, Ma. Eloise R.
    810. CASTILLO, Ma. Pamela C.
    811. CASTILLO, Ma. Victoria M.
    812. CASTILLO, Margarita Anne P.
    813. CASTILLO, Marjorie R.
    814. CASTILLO, May R.
    815. CASTILLO, JR., Precidio A.
    816. CASTILLO-ESPIRITU, Iza Marie P.
    817. CASTILLON, Arnel John D.
    818. CASTOR, Marlon M.
    819. CASTRICIONES, Juan Lorenzo Maria S.
    820. CASTRICIONES, Miguel Ignacio Maria S.
    821. CASTRO, Irma M.
    822. CASTRO, James Marvin Earl E.
    823. CASTRO, Jerome Carlo C.
    824. CASTRO, Jimmy Jerard A.
    825. CASTRO, Stanley Lylwyn A.
    826. CASTRONUEVO, Donna A.
    827. CATACUTAN, Arman C.
    828. CATACUTAN-ESTABILLO, Maya Julieta R.
    829. CATANGLAN, Ken A.
    830. CATAYEN, Lovely Rose Z.
    831. CATCALIN, Melanie C.
    832. CATIBAYAN, Eduard A.
    833. CATIPAY, Roselle Anne B.
    834. CATLI, Fely Jane P.
    835. CATUBAO, Dulce C.
    836. CATUDAN, Ma. Racquel S.
    837. CAWALING, Jeffrey S.
    838. CAWALO, Gaspar D.
    839. CAWIS, Christian Faith M.
    840. CAYABA, Maria Victoria B.
    841. CAYABAS, Chester S.
    842. CAYADAN, Dexter B.
    843. CAYAT, Roma C.
    844. CAYETANO, Baby Marian Grace A.
    845. CAYETANO, Rozen Olivia G.
    846. CAYTON, Juan Paolo E.
    847. CAÑEDO, Andrew Jericho P.
    848. CAÑETE, Michael E.
    849. CAÑETE, II, Nemesio B.
    850. CEBALLOS, Robert Joseph C.
    851. CEBRIAN, Emile Justin D.
    852. CEDILLO, Christine G.
    853. CELERIAN, Adhara Kaye G.
    854. CELINO, Dante A.
    855. CELLES, Leandro P.
    856. CELMAR, Aliany A.
    857. CEMBRANO, Aurora Luanne R.
    858. CEMBRANO, Franco Aldo N.
    859. CENIZA, Duane V.
    860. CENTINA, Christian Jane D.
    861. CENTINA, Lisa Jane D.
    862. CERDAN, Anthony Vincent A.
    863. CERIA, Monaliza G.
    864. CERIALES, Chester D.
    865. CERTEZA, Jose Antonio A.
    866. CERVANTES, Ruth G.
    867. CHAN, Fenalon O.
    868. CHAN, Jamie Katrina F.
    869. CHAN-GONZAGA, Ismael Jose, Iii V.
    870. CHANG, Alyanna R.
    871. CHAO, Cherry-amor O.
    872. CHAVES, Angeline T.
    873. CHAVEZ, Myraflor L.
    874. CHENG, Renlyn B.
    875. CHING, Catherine Anna T.
    876. CHING, Marc Jonnell J.
    877. CHIONG, Don Victor V.
    878. CHIONGSON, Sharlene Anjelica L.
    879. CHIU, Lela Joanna H.
    880. CHU, Christopher Jerome P.
    881. CHU, Monique M.
    882. CHU, Roselle A.
    883. CHUA, Annie Frida K.
    884. CHUA, Carmela B.
    885. CHUA, Dawn Clarisse T.
    886. CHUA, Jessamine Lynn Dale N.
    887. CHUA, Jonalyndie B.
    888. CHUA, Kimmie Ann R.
    889. CHUA, Rhino T.
    890. CHUNGALAO, Modesta Apesa H.
    891. CIRCA, Dexter S.
    892. CLAUDIO, Eric G.
    893. CLAUDIO, Glino Barsen G.
    894. CLAUDIO, Jan Paul S.
    895. CLEDERA, Bethany Joy B.
    896. CLEMENCIO, Reuville U.
    897. CLEMENTE, Grazielle M.
    898. CLEMENTE, Lady Mae A.
    899. CLET, Nestie C.
    900. CLIMACO, Cindy T.
    901. CLIMACO, Jan Ceasar A.
    902. CLOMA, Geraldee Frances M.
    903. CO, Aaron James E.
    904. COCABO, Patrick Vincent G.
    905. COCAL, Emmanuel O.
    906. CODANGOS, Dennis B.
    907. COFINO, Mark T.
    908. COLAGO, Faye Katherine T.
    909. COLINA, Czar Augustus C.
    910. COLIS, Kim Darriel P.
    911. COLLADO, Erika C.
    912. COLLADO, Roland E.
    913. COMBATE, Bernadeth D.
    914. COMENDADOR, Ramil M.
    915. COMIGHOD, Alstair J.
    916. COMINES, Czarina Victoria L.
    917. COMODA, Mae Lailour P.
    918. COMPARATIVO, Glorydee A.
    919. COMPAÑERO, Neil B.
    920. CONCEPCION, Alexylle Rose G.
    921. CONCEPCION, Joel M.
    922. CONCEPCION, Rollidel R.
    923. CONCEPCION-BUTAY, Dawn Lin A.
    924. CONCHA, Rainier Rhett G.
    925. CONDEZ, Ferdino M.
    926. CONG, Albert G.
    927. CONSIGNADO, Paolo Miguel
    928. CONSOLACION, Edward L.
    929. CONSTANTINO, Regina M.
    930. CONSULTA, Margie M.
    931. CONTINUADO, Anna Bianca S.
    932. CONVOCAR, Red Gabriel W.
    933. COQUIA, Euville T.
    934. CORBO, Rhobie S.
    935. CORDERO, Erick Michael O.
    936. CORDERO, George Lyndon T.
    937. CORDEZ, JR., Jaime I.
    938. CORDOVA, Fatima Faye E.
    939. CORNILLEZ, Zandra M.
    940. COROMINAS, Andrea Therese Z.
    941. CORONADO, Myra A.
    942. CORONADO, Raphael Enrique V.
    943. CORPUZ, David C.
    944. CORPUZ, Karla Mari R.
    945. CORPUZ, Maria Cristina C.
    946. CORPUZ, Samuel S.
    947. CORPUZ, Sunshine R.
    948. CORTES, Angeli Victoria B.
    949. CORTES, Nikkolo Marco Aurelio V.
    950. CORTEZ, Ging Bee S.
    951. CORTEZ, Liza Angela O.
    952. COSAIN, Ansary S.
    953. COSEP, Lech Jb June S.
    954. COSEP, Mary Jane T.
    955. CRISOSTOMO, Mary Rose N.
    956. CRISPO, Christine G.
    957. CRISTAL, Maria Gretel I.
    958. CRISTOBAL, Mely Ann Emerie A.
    959. CRUZ, Aileen Charisse P.
    960. CRUZ, Anafeil Marie C.
    961. CRUZ, Andrelille Christian A.
    962. CRUZ, Anne Margarette Justine M.
    963. CRUZ, Bumbo S.
    964. CRUZ, Chanine Mae P.
    965. CRUZ, Edgar B.
    966. CRUZ, Enriquito L.
    967. CRUZ, Erika O.
    968. CRUZ, Franz Ivan A.
    969. CRUZ, John Nowell R.
    970. CRUZ, Joyce Anne R.
    971. CRUZ, Karl Raymond D.
    972. CRUZ, Leo Frederick Z.
    973. CRUZ, Marianne Joy C.
    974. CRUZ, Michael Edgardo N.
    975. CRUZ, Nesley Rae P.
    976. CRUZ, Patricia Ann M.
    977. CRUZ, Ria B.
    978. CRUZ-DOMINGO, Mary Annabelle F.
    979. CUA, Pia Maria Barbara Mirca C.
    980. CUABO, Venus A.
    981. CUADRAS, Cristine Clea B.
    982. CUARTO, Jay-ar R.
    983. CUBIO, Ayn M.
    984. CUCHAPIN, Mark Vincent S.
    985. CUDALAP, Dagiw-a K.
    986. CUENCA, Pamela
    987. CUENCO, Desiree P.
    988. CUEVAS, May Zyra V.
    989. CUEVAS, Warren P.
    990. CUEVAS-CORPUZ, Rhodora Grace P.
    991. CUI, Ma. Chiarra A.
    992. CULAR, Coreene Ann G.
    993. CULMINAS, Cherry Claire P.
    994. CULO, Charles B.
    995. CUMIGAD, Rotciv R.
    996. CUNANAN, Stacy L.
    997. CUPAG, Carole Jean A.
    998. CURAN, Anna Marie A.
    999. CURO, Norhasima S.
    1000. CUSAIN, Aimee S.
    1001. CUSAY, Jerman F.
    1002. CUSI, Martin Victorino S.
    1003. CUSIPAG, Raymond Aljon A.
    1004. CUSTODIO, Tzarine Jovanna B.
    1005. CUTANDA-LARIOS, Kristine A.
    1006. CUYEGKENG, Chrysten Giann C.
    1007. CUYUGAN, Emil S.
    1008. CUÑADO, Hazel Y.
    1009. CYPRES, Jenny Joy C.
    1010. DABALOS, Katrina P.
    1011. DACANAY, Janine Prelle A.
    1012. DACANAY-PAMOR, Salina Grahane A.
    1013. DACER, Ronaldo R.
    1014. DACUMOS, Annalene A.
    1015. DAGDAG, Antonio Leandro C.
    1016. DAGPIN, Kamenev Kiril P.
    1017. DALAM, Ahmedsiddique B.
    1018. DALANGIN, Kristine Joyce A.
    1019. DALIDA, Anthony Dei V.
    1020. DALIDIG, Nikki Morshida M.
    1021. DALUMPINES, Pamela Blanca L.
    1022. DAMASO, Chuck F.
    1023. DAMIAN, Flynn Strauss D.
    1024. DANGILAN, Sean Michael Joseph C.
    1025. DANGIS, Glennson A.
    1026. DANGWA, Vina Vrenelli P.
    1027. DANTES, Lorenz Fernand D.
    1028. DANTIS, Arvin L.
    1029. DAO-INES, Aileen G.
    1030. DAPIAWEN, Amenidad L.
    1031. DARILAG, Roy Martin O.
    1032. DARILAY, Ellen E.
    1033. DARIMBANG, Jonaidah M.
    1034. DASAL, Ryan R.
    1035. DATU, Al Ponciano R.
    1036. DATU-DACULA, Omar I.
    1037. DATUIN, Aimee Fay R.
    1038. DATUIN, Martina Mignon G.
    1039. DAVID, Mariel Josine N.
    1040. DAVID, Marseille A.
    1041. DAVID, Peter Carlo P.
    1042. DAVID, Philip Jeffrey D.
    1043. DAVID, Rem Kristiane G.
    1044. DAVID, Sheigla Nerie V.
    1045. DAVIS, Arlan L.
    1046. DAYAG, Delila L.
    1047. DAYAG, Julie Pearl P.
    1048. DAYANDAYAN, Jannie Ann J.
    1049. DAYATE, Raniel A.
    1050. DAYO, Francis R.
    1051. DAYO, Francis Raul L.
    1052. DAYOG, John Edward Lee F.
    1053. DAYRIT, Riovel P.
    1054. DE ALBAN, Rachel Hazel T.
    1055. DE CASTRO, Arlene C.
    1056. DE CASTRO, Michael Christopher C.
    1057. DE CLARO-ARTEZA, Shela L.
    1058. DE GALA, Maria Connie R.
    1059. DE GRACIA, Marivic B.
    1060. DE GUIA, Molee Uzworth B.
    1061. DE GULAN, Jeff Marvick R.
    1062. DE GUZMAN, Bien Ronald L.
    1063. DE GUZMAN, Carl Louie R.
    1064. DE GUZMAN, Chanell Dolor D.
    1065. DE GUZMAN, Cyrus T.
    1066. DE GUZMAN, Isabelle Vien S.
    1067. DE GUZMAN, Joyce Dianne J.
    1068. DE GUZMAN, Ma. Celine Angela K.
    1069. DE GUZMAN, Myra C.
    1070. DE GUZMAN, Tristan E.
    1071. DE GUZMAN, Willie, Jr. P.
    1072. DE GUZMAN, JR., Geronimo T.
    1073. DE JESUS, Charles P.
    1074. DE JESUS, Eugene L.
    1075. DE JESUS, Paula Bianca F.
    1076. DE LA CERNA, Erika-anne Therese D.
    1077. DE LA CRUZ, Alexandria F.
    1078. DE LA CRUZ, Shugen P.
    1079. DE LA PAZ, Marveen B.
    1080. DE LA ROSA, Jomel Noi A.
    1081. DE LA ROSA, Vican Jess D.
    1082. DE LARA, Sarah Mae M.
    1083. DE LEMOS, Mirriam Andrea V.
    1084. DE LEON, Alejandro R.
    1085. DE LEON, Anna Teris M.
    1086. DE LEON, Claire
    1087. DE LEON, Leonore Angeli B.
    1088. DE LEON, Marvin C.
    1089. DE LEON, Rod Rafael M.
    1090. DE LIMA, Darcy Bertulfo E.
    1091. DE LIMA, III, Gregorio L.
    1092. DE LOS REYES, Girlie May M.
    1093. DE LOS SANTOS, Naiza Mae N.
    1094. DE LUNA, Amie Roxylen T.
    1095. DE SILVA, Alvin R.
    1096. DE TORRES, Alenz Avril P.
    1097. DE VENECIA, Jacqueline T.
    1098. DE VERA, Jeseth Marie Loren P.
    1099. DE VERA, Ma. Cristina A.
    1100. DE VEYRA, Christopher Edward M.
    1101. DE VEYRA, Kenneth Spice M.
    1102. DE VILLA, Sheena Mara R.
    1103. DEALINO, Jose Aniceto David S.
    1104. DEBARATUN-DIACAT, Sittie Hafzah R.
    1105. DECANGCHON, Charles Francis F.
    1106. DECHAVEZ, Alyssa Mae A.
    1107. DECILOS, Jillian T.
    1108. DEGINO, Albert Q.
    1109. DEGUSMAN, Bensaud O.
    1110. DEL CASTILLO, Jan Emmanuel F.
    1111. DEL MUNDO, Erwin C.
    1112. DEL MUNDO, Ronald Rae C.
    1113. DEL ROSARIO, Lily Rose L.
    1114. DEL ROSARIO, Ma. Jescelyn O.
    1115. DEL ROSARIO, Mark V.
    1116. DEL ROSARIO, Ralph Gabrielle D.
    1117. DELA CRUZ, Aardan Mikhail Kutch C.
    1118. DELA CRUZ, Ayagil P.
    1119. DELA CRUZ, Charlz G.
    1120. DELA CRUZ, Cyndy P.
    1121. DELA CRUZ, Daryl A.
    1122. DELA CRUZ, Erlene Luz V.
    1123. DELA CRUZ, Gretchen Mari M.
    1124. DELA CRUZ, Hacel Grace T.
    1125. DELA CRUZ, Jamaica Kay S.
    1126. DELA CRUZ, Jennah Marie C.
    1127. DELA CRUZ, Jolet Paulo D.
    1128. DELA CRUZ, Magnolia A.
    1129. DELA CRUZ, Pearl Sharon A.
    1130. DELA CRUZ, Rosenda
    1131. DELA CRUZ-MATAMMU, Kimberley D.
    1132. DELA FUENTE, Rafael Kenneth M.
    1133. DELA TORRE, Ariel B.
    1134. DELA TORRE-BORLA, Mae T.
    1135. DELA VEGA, Alexis G.
    1136. DELECTOR, Janedee G.
    1137. DELFIN, Philip Carlo M.
    1138. DELGADO, Clayton Edgar M.
    1139. DELORIA, Reginald R.
    1140. DELOS REYES, Daimel D.
    1141. DELOS REYES, Regine V.
    1142. DELOS SANTOS, Alexandra Patricia L.
    1143. DELOS SANTOS, Joseph D.
    1144. DELOS SANTOS, Monaliza B.
    1145. DELOS SANTOS-DY, Gretel Kelly M.
    1146. DELOS TRINOS, Arnico M.
    1147. DEMAYUGA, JR., Felizardo T.
    1148. DENOLAN, Mary Cecile N.
    1149. DEOCAMPO, JR., Felix R.
    1150. DEONA, Neil Owen B.
    1151. DEPALUBOS, Ronel C.
    1152. DEPASUCAT, Astrid Beryl T.
    1153. DERIT, Mark Resty R.
    1154. DESABILLE, Aldwin Brian C.
    1155. DESTURA, Salvador Julius Caesar B.
    1156. DESUASIDO, Mary Grace B.
    1157. DETERA, Jessica L.
    1158. DEVERATURDA, Richer P.
    1159. DEVEZA, Jillian Kristin A.
    1160. DEZA, Catherine P.
    1161. DIAMANTE, D’joanna M.
    1162. DIAMANTE, Jack Benigno A.
    1163. DIAMANTE, Nadine Christine A.
    1164. DIAMZON, Veronica Jane F.
    1165. DIAPEN, Nicolie E.
    1166. DIAZ, Aljun B.
    1167. DIAZ, Catherine Rose G.
    1168. DIAZ, Janice I.
    1169. DIAZ, Jill Y.
    1170. DIAZ, Karl Adrian O.
    1171. DIAZ, Pauline Kris F.
    1172. DIAZ DE RIVERA, Jon Vincent B.
    1173. DIAZ, JR., Gerardo J.
    1174. DIAZ, JR., Rodolfo L.
    1175. DIAZ-TACASON, Rachel Kate B.
    1176. DICRITAN, Mohammad Ansari B.
    1177. DIDA-AGUN, Nashiba G.
    1178. DIEGO, Asmira S.
    1179. DIEGO, Chester Lloyd C.
    1180. DIEGO, Rofelson D.
    1181. DIEGO, III, Fidel Maximo M.
    1182. DIESTO, Rizaida M.
    1183. DIGAUM, Lucks Mae D.
    1184. DIGNADICE, Jennyllette B.
    1185. DIGNO, Carmi B.
    1186. DILAG, Jocel Isidro S.
    1187. DILLENA, Ma. Marinela V.
    1188. DIMAANO, Jonathan Paolo R.
    1189. DIMACULANGAN, Gem A.
    1190. DIMACULANGAN, Jane Lancie H.
    1191. DIMAGUILA, Ma. Elena G.
    1192. DIMAKUTA, Jannaisa Ainee R.
    1193. DIMALALUAN, Gerard B.
    1194. DIMAPILIS, Glaiza T.
    1195. DIMCO, Jovelyn May C.
    1196. DIN, Jerome B.
    1197. DINAQUE, Keren Beatrice R.
    1198. DINGAYAN, Leonardo P.
    1199. DINGLASAN, Edlize Rea R.
    1200. DINO, Jerdin J.
    1201. DIO, JR., Marianito L.
    1202. DIOLA, Kyra Kae B.
    1203. DIOLA, Ma. Teresa P.
    1204. DIONALDO, Jeralyn S.
    1205. DIONELA, Isagani M.
    1206. DIONEN, Tara Louise A.
    1207. DIOQUINO, Karla Louise S.
    1208. DIOQUINO, Mark Vernon C.
    1209. DIOSOMITO, Irish M.
    1210. DISAMBURUN, Fatimah Suzzane A.
    1211. DISANGCOPAN, Esnihairah M.
    1212. DISTOR, Katrin Jessica I.
    1213. DITUCALAN, Sarah Jane B.
    1214. DIUMANO, Fritz Micah A.
    1215. DIVINAGRACIA, Chandrina S.
    1216. DIVINAGRACIA, Jan Virgil E.
    1217. DIZON, Angelo DR.
    1218. DIZON, Edgar S.
    1219. DIZON, Julius A.
    1220. DIZON, May Maureen G.
    1221. DIZON, Parable P.
    1222. DIÑO, Charisse V.
    1223. DOBLADA, Glizelle C.
    1224. DOCE, Benjie B.
    1225. DOCTOR, Gene R.
    1226. DOCTOR, Joy Lynne E.
    1227. DOGWE, Cynthia L.
    1228. DOLATRE, Gretchen G.
    1229. DOLDUCO-CONSTANTINO, Ma. Cassie Jean D.
    1230. DOLLENTAS, JR., Oro Rabi T.
    1231. DOLLETE, Ma. Vicky B.
    1232. DOLO, Mark Angelo M.
    1233. DOLOR, Ruth-ann A.
    1234. DOLOT, Diane Jane D.
    1235. DOMALAON, Marilyn D.
    1236. DOMANTAY, JR., Cornelio P.
    1237. DOMINGO, April Joy Benezia B.
    1238. DOMINGO, Daniel Junior G.
    1239. DOMINGO, Dianne N.
    1240. DOMINGO, Glaiza G.
    1241. DOMINGO, Hearty Lady A.
    1242. DOMINGO, Joahna Paula Q.
    1243. DOMINGO, Kelvin Roy L.
    1244. DOMINGO, Larra Mariz C.
    1245. DOMINGO, Marian P.
    1246. DOMINGO, Roxanne G.
    1247. DOMINGO, Warden D.
    1248. DOMINGUEZ, Arabella V.
    1249. DOMINO, Ryan J.
    1250. DOROMAL, Euangeli P.
    1251. DORONELA, Ma. Beta S.
    1252. DORONILA, Petri John L.
    1253. DOZA, Jose Maria D.
    1254. DU-SAMPAGA, Alyssa Joyce B.
    1255. DUBLADO, Jerika Joy K.
    1256. DUCA, Marc Kenrich O.
    1257. DUCEPEC, Daisy Margaret V.
    1258. DUERO, Eduardo A.
    1259. DULAY, Diana C.
    1260. DULAY, Leenard S.
    1261. DULCE, Armando D.
    1262. DULNUAN, Jill S.
    1263. DUMALLEG, Germa P.
    1264. DUMAPIS, Richard P.
    1265. DUMAYAG, Arbelle S.
    1266. DUMLAO, Ruben M.
    1267. DUNUAN, Adrienne Regine S.
    1268. DUPILAS, Randy A.
    1269. DURAN, Mary Ann L.
    1270. DURATO, Geramer V.
    1271. DY, Lilian O.
    1272. DY, Maisie C.
    1273. DY KAM, Ruth Francis A.
    1274. DYSANGCO, Stephanie Maree N.
    1275. EBDALIN, Xandra Yzabelle T.
    1276. EBDANI, Jo Marie L.
    1277. EBREO, Karmela Mirriam A.
    1278. EBREO, Rodel C.
    1279. ECALNEA, Maria Cresielda S.
    1280. ECHANO, Jessalyn E.
    1281. EDANG, Rommel John G.
    1282. EDIG, Lourdes Angelie O.
    1283. EDIZA, Flornelio S.
    1284. EDRES, Anisah A.
    1285. EGBUS, Ritche V.
    1286. EJAS-SALISIP, Rona Jade C.
    1287. ELAMPARO, Trixie Marie Naldine M.
    1288. ELERIA, Marda Karina B.
    1289. ELICA, Ma. Essa S.
    1290. ELICANO, Leomille B.
    1291. ELIZAGA, Justin L.
    1292. ELIZALDE, Salvalente Thaddeus B.
    1293. ELLORIN, Katherine F.
    1294. ELUMBA, Jr E.
    1295. EMAS, Apollo Glenn C.
    1296. EMBOY, Dann Marvin A.
    1297. EMOCLING, Quennie P.
    1298. ENAD, Julie Ann M.
    1299. ENCARNACION, Miguel Jaime C.
    1300. ENCINAS, Nicy C.
    1301. ENCISO, Gwen P.
    1302. ENERIO, Jacinta T.
    1303. ENRIQUEZ, Alexis C.
    1304. ENRIQUEZ, Desiree Von D.
    1305. ENRIQUEZ, Sunshine R.
    1306. ENRIQUEZ-DANGCALAN, Gremarie O.
    1307. ENTERA, Andrew M.
    1308. EPISCOPE, Khristian Jeff C.
    1309. EPONDULAN, Golda A.
    1310. ERAN, Gleim Brean U.
    1311. ERANA, Alpina M.
    1312. ERBON, Ronalyn A.
    1313. ERICSON, Ivaraxel C.
    1314. ERISPE, Aimee Kareen J.
    1315. EROJO, Tristan Romyr W.
    1316. ESCABARTE, Glinys Fe B.
    1317. ESCALA, Alexis A.
    1318. ESCALONA, Edward Herbert S.
    1319. ESCALONA, Michelle Ann M.
    1320. ESCARTIN, Lv Jo T.
    1321. ESCASINAS, Anthony R.
    1322. ESCAÑAN, Hazel C.
    1323. ESCAÑO, Richmond John M.
    1324. ESCOBAR, II, Hilary Romeo A.
    1325. ESCOLLANTE, Pearl Christine T.
    1326. ESCOTO, Nina Claire R.
    1327. ESDEN, Celyne Klaire L.
    1328. ESEQUE, Czarina Danielle E.
    1329. ESGUERRA, Clarissa Heromina R.
    1330. ESGUERRA, Delia D.
    1331. ESPARAGOZA, Leoj J.
    1332. ESPARAGOZA, Randolf P.
    1333. ESPARRAGUERRA, Gieza R.
    1334. ESPAÑOL, Maral Angel B.
    1335. ESPAÑOLA, Amapola J.
    1336. ESPEJO, Julius Glenn T.
    1337. ESPEJO, Marietes S.
    1338. ESPELETA, Maria Aleli A.
    1339. ESPERA, Roel S.
    1340. ESPERANZA, Gracein E.
    1341. ESPINA, Celeste Virma-fleur Y.
    1342. ESPINA, Jacqueline Michelle S.
    1343. ESPINA, Kim G.
    1344. ESPINAL, Mylene M.
    1345. ESPINO, Maria Cyrelle L.
    1346. ESPINO, Rofel Princess E.
    1347. ESPINOSA, Catherine Rae T.
    1348. ESPINOSA, Edgar Raymund P.
    1349. ESPINOSA, Karla Jo A.
    1350. ESPIRITU, Maria Nikka N.
    1351. ESPIÑA, Mae Lisette P.
    1352. ESTACIO, Israel Earl Laurente C.
    1353. ESTACIO, Natalie Joyce P.
    1354. ESTEBAN, Danica Diane C.
    1355. ESTELLA, Anna Ramona E.
    1356. ESTILLORE, Regine Cecilia P.
    1357. ESTIOKO, Dan U.
    1358. ESTO, Juniefifth G.
    1359. ESTOR, Doreene Lorenza P.
    1360. ESTOYA-BAUTISTA, Gelanderwin C.
    1361. ESTRADA, Crisanto Ambrosio Q.
    1362. ESTRADA, Renard Reich N.
    1363. ESTRELLA, Mohammad Muktadir A.
    1364. EUBANK, Mark Wayne E.
    1365. EUGENIO, Einstein D.
    1366. EUSALAN, Dan Drebb H.
    1367. EVANGELIO, Michelle M.
    1368. EVANGELISTA, Maria Ana A.
    1369. EVANGELISTA, Maria Christine A.
    1370. EVANGELISTA, Mary Joan B.
    1371. EVANGELISTA, Reynaldo B.
    1372. EVARDONE, JR., Philip C.
    1373. EVASCO, Emilou G.
    1374. EVIOTA, Gail Jane M.
    1375. EXCONDE, Cloe Joy B.
    1376. FABELLA, Lindsey S.
    1377. FABELLA, Maricar F.
    1378. FABILA, Richard A.
    1379. FABRA, Helen O.
    1380. FABREGAS, Jimmyline S.
    1381. FACULLO, Dublin O.
    1382. FADERA, Chloe S.
    1383. FADERO, Rodrigo E.
    1384. FADERUGAO, Maricris V.
    1385. FADRILAN, Adrian M.
    1386. FAHAD, Aiza D.
    1387. FAJARDO, Aileen Leisha L.
    1388. FAJARDO, Jake Rey M.
    1389. FAJARDO, Noreena Valerie D.
    1390. FALCON, Juvelin Camille C.
    1391. FALGUI, Maria Mikaela Luz V.
    1392. FALLER, Pamela L.
    1393. FAMA, Maria Jamyka S.
    1394. FAMILLARAN, Patrick John E.
    1395. FANG, Irish Mae V.
    1396. FANGLAYAN, Troy A.
    1397. FAUNE, Ma. Jonelle S.
    1398. FAURILLO, Cyril A.
    1399. FAUSTINO, Melencio S.
    1400. FEBLE, Karen Gail B.
    1401. FEDERIZO, Nina Diana U.
    1402. FEGI, Walter P.
    1403. FELICIANO, Carlene Jean F.
    1404. FELICIANO, Patrizia Ann L.
    1405. FELIX, Reynaldo G.
    1406. FELIX, Rick Love S.
    1407. FERIA, Angela Katrina K.
    1408. FERNANDEZ, Adora L.
    1409. FERNANDEZ, Alipio Vittorio Ramon D.
    1410. FERNANDEZ, Deonnalynne G.
    1411. FERNANDEZ, Gemmo B.
    1412. FERNANDEZ, James B.
    1413. FERNANDEZ, John Paul P.
    1414. FERNANDEZ, Lean Ramon B.
    1415. FERNANDEZ, Luke Mahatma R.
    1416. FERNANDEZ, Maria Divina Gracia B.
    1417. FERNANDEZ, Maria Lucia R.
    1418. FERNANDEZ, Marlon P.
    1419. FERNANDEZ, Mikaila Ross H.
    1420. FERNANDEZ, Noel O.
    1421. FERNANDEZ, Robert Francis C.
    1422. FERNANDEZ, Sheila B.
    1423. FERNANDEZ, III, Vicente L.
    1424. FERNANDEZ-MANZANO, Gloria L.
    1425. FERNANDO, John Daniel S.
    1426. FERNANDO, Niña F.
    1427. FERRER, Cassey E.
    1428. FERRER, Joy Ann A.
    1429. FERRER, Joy Celine B.
    1430. FERRER, Maridel A.
    1431. FERRER, Ryan Mervin M.
    1432. FERRER-FERNANDEZ, Josephine C.
    1433. FERRERA, Von Ryan S.
    1434. FERRERIA, Jane D.
    1435. FERROLINO, Jet Mitchelle J.
    1436. FESTIN, Anna Carolina P.
    1437. FIEL, John Michael T.
    1438. FIGUEROA, Maria Criselda M.
    1439. FILARMEO-MARZOÑA, Angeline Chezka P.
    1440. FILIPINAS, Francis Ray A.
    1441. FILOTEO, Morris John M.
    1442. FLANCIA, JR., Rodil S.
    1443. FLORANO, Ralna Dyan T.
    1444. FLORENDO, Paul M.
    1445. FLORENTIN-DONATO, Rosalie Santa J.
    1446. FLORES, Anna Criselda H.
    1447. FLORES, Ethel Gillian D.
    1448. FLORES, Jan Chester I.
    1449. FLORES, Janine C.
    1450. FLORES, Lawrence John B.
    1451. FLORES, Louisse Anne P.
    1452. FLORES, Luis Miguel A.
    1453. FLORES, Rex L.
    1454. FLORES, Samuel R.
    1455. FLORES, Trisha Beverly C.
    1456. FLORES, III, Casiano V.
    1457. FLORES, JR., Edison T.
    1458. FLORES-PARADERO, Tricia Jane B.
    1459. FLORIDA, Ma. Clavel E.
    1460. FONDEVILLA, Paolo G.
    1461. FONTANILLA, Jonalyn G.
    1462. FOPALAN, Errol John F.
    1463. FORMILLEZA, Luis Voltaire D.
    1464. FORONDA, Mary Ann R.
    1465. FORONDA, Xyza Faye V.
    1466. FORTALEZA, Joffrey C.
    1467. FORTES-LEUNG, Ma. Roselle F.
    1468. FORTIFAES, Cheryl Marie R.
    1469. FRAGATA, Chrysta Leena L.
    1470. FRANCIA, Maria Cristina I.
    1471. FRANCISCO, Armie A.
    1472. FRANCISCO, Diane Nicole P.
    1473. FRANCISCO, Raul Ricardo F.
    1474. FRANCISCO, Reginald L.
    1475. FRANCISCO, Zaldy Von A.
    1476. FRANCO, Desiree Amor J.
    1477. FRANJE, Hanelli Jane A.
    1478. FRESNIDO, Donna Isabelle M.
    1479. FU, Georgina Annette L.
    1480. FUCOY, Nicandro, Ii S.
    1481. FUENTES, Elica Mariz D.
    1482. FUERTES, Emmanuel C.
    1483. FUGGAN, Juanita C.
    1484. FULGENCIO, Angelo P.
    1485. FULGENCIO, Bernhard C.
    1486. GAANO, Reynaldo M.
    1487. GABIA, Catherine R.
    1488. GABIANE, Nikki P.
    1489. GABINETE, Cesleen T.
    1490. GABIONZA, Miguel Angelo S.
    1491. GABISAN, Miguela M.
    1492. GABRIANA-REYES, Angelica Grace P.
    1493. GACUTAN, Catherine C.
    1494. GADIANO, Mylene A.
    1495. GADON, Mary Mae M.
    1496. GAIRANOD, Pauline Marie R.
    1497. GAITE, John Glim F.
    1498. GALANG, Karla Ysabel L.
    1499. GALANG, Leo Arman P.
    1500. GALANG, Ma. Lorenza S.
    1501. GALIAS, Ellaine Janica T.
    1502. GALICIA, Leonida Marie P.
    1503. GALLEGO, Charlotte F.
    1504. GALLEGO, Mark Evan J.
    1505. GALLETA, Mary Luz H.
    1506. GALOS, Maria Linda G.
    1507. GALURA, Victor Angelo L.
    1508. GALVE, Angelica D.
    1509. GALVEZ, Ana Margarita B.
    1510. GALVEZ, Dearkyle Anicee A.
    1511. GALVEZ, Edgar Sean V.
    1512. GALVEZ, Jobelle G.
    1513. GALVEZ, Roy Mikhail V.
    1514. GAMBOA, Frances Anne B.
    1515. GAMBON, Mark Jayson M.
    1516. GAMO, Gesta Riva A.
    1517. GAMOSA-HOJILLA, Ma. Fe G.
    1518. GAMUEDA, Judith Rowena P.
    1519. GAN, Margaret P.
    1520. GANA, Dominique Marie Akio Therese P.
    1521. GANA, Erica May O.
    1522. GANANCIAL, Christian Roy S.
    1523. GANDAMRA, Omaimah E.
    1524. GANGE, Jordanna H.
    1525. GANIR, Gilbert Augustin J.
    1526. GAPUZAN, Angeli B.
    1527. GARALDE-CHUA, Maria Margarita H.
    1528. GARCELAZO, Regine Ann A.
    1529. GARCHITORENA, Monica Y.
    1530. GARCIA, Aika Fore M.
    1531. GARCIA, Andrea F.
    1532. GARCIA, Bienvenido, Iii G.
    1533. GARCIA, Dan Patrick S.
    1534. GARCIA, Edelyn Anne T.
    1535. GARCIA, Eleonor Dyan R.
    1536. GARCIA, Ericka Jean G.
    1537. GARCIA, Galileo C.
    1538. GARCIA, Geraldine Rochelle G.
    1539. GARCIA, Hendrick Carlo D.
    1540. GARCIA, Joenard G.
    1541. GARCIA, Joselitolee S.
    1542. GARCIA, Joseniño M.
    1543. GARCIA, Karla Khatrina A.
    1544. GARCIA, Karren V.
    1545. GARCIA, Lionel Kendrick B.
    1546. GARCIA, Ma. Shiela H.
    1547. GARCIA, Megan Angela B.
    1548. GARCIA, Nathan Lance U.
    1549. GARCIA, Sidhartha Felice Mae O.
    1550. GARCIA, Vincent Joshua M.
    1551. GARCIA, JR., Felicito R.
    1552. GARCIA-ANDAL, Arlene R.
    1553. GARCIANO, Christine Joyce N.
    1554. GARILLO, Corinne Joie M.
    1555. GARIN, Alice M.
    1556. GARVIDA, Dustin C.
    1557. GASCON, Georgia Ruby B.
    1558. GASPAR, Jul-ahmad J.
    1559. GATACELO, Steven G.
    1560. GAVINO, Maria Linda G.
    1561. GAVIOLA, Antonette H.
    1562. GAW, Stephanie Mei L.
    1563. GAWAT, Mary Quioline D.
    1564. GAYETA, Niña Richa M.
    1565. GELI, Cheska Marie D.
    1566. GELI, Justin Roman S.
    1567. GELITO, Jose Judhil F.
    1568. GELLA, Ophelia B.
    1569. GEMPIS, Kay Kari Ann J.
    1570. GENERAL, Phyllisabelle Bethany W.
    1571. GENERALAO, Jarold Rey N.
    1572. GENERALE, James Ian A.
    1573. GENITA, Umar M.
    1574. GENOLOS-MONTEMAYOR, Kyrie Dea Maia T.
    1575. GEONZON, Jaralliese S.
    1576. GEOPANO, Joselle Lea R.
    1577. GEORFO, Louraine May T.
    1578. GEPUELA, Jose Margarito Gerardo C.
    1579. GERALDEZ, Patricia P.
    1580. GEREÑA, Roselle G.
    1581. GERMAN, Christian Emerson V.
    1582. GERMONES, Arjun D.
    1583. GEROMO, Felix Louis T.
    1584. GERON, Kristine Ann W.
    1585. GERONA, Cyril Joy T.
    1586. GERONGA, Arvi Adan V.
    1587. GERONILLA, Lynn Frances A.
    1588. GESTUVEO, Camille Joy C.
    1589. GILLAMAC, Hyacinth R.
    1590. GILTENDEZ, Aiza P.
    1591. GIMENEZ, Katrina Dianne B.
    1592. GINES, JR., Carmelo D.
    1593. GINGANE, Joey D.
    1594. GLORIA, Araceli B.
    1595. GLOVASA, Adeline L.
    1596. GO, Anne Bernadette G.
    1597. GO, Carlo Miguel Romeo S.
    1598. GO, Giancharlie P.
    1599. GO, Honrado Jose F.
    1600. GO, Kay Beverly S.
    1601. GO, Vanessa Jeniffer D.
    1602. GOCO, Ma. Zoe F.
    1603. GOCUAN, Russell Randall L.
    1604. GODUCO, Barbara Divina P.
    1605. GOLINGAY, Jeremy L.
    1606. GOMERA, Maria Luisa M.
    1607. GOMES, Anna Lee K.
    1608. GOMEZ, Edrich Lito G.
    1609. GOMEZ, Jefferson L.
    1610. GOMEZ, Jessa Ann Z.
    1611. GOMEZ, Mary Krissein M.
    1612. GOMEZ, Richard V.
    1613. GONDA, Philip Romano J.
    1614. GONDALES, Esteban C.
    1615. GONO, Ana Maria G.
    1616. GONZAGA, Angelyn O.
    1617. GONZAGA, Jhanrey G.
    1618. GONZAGA, Lyra Mae M.
    1619. GONZAGA, Patricia Joy E.
    1620. GONZALES, Gemayel Kemal I.
    1621. GONZALES, Germi E.
    1622. GONZALES, Jose Crisanto P.
    1623. GONZALES, Maria Ivy Kristel M.
    1624. GONZALES, Mariel Claire D.
    1625. GONZALES, Nia Rachelle M.
    1626. GONZALES, Paolo Miguel C.
    1627. GONZALES, Rose Ann Joy V.
    1628. GONZALES, IV, Ernanie Erwin L.
    1629. GONZALES, JR., Jaime C.
    1630. GONZALES-PILAR, Maria Nadia Nalinac V.
    1631. GONZALEZ, Candice Dale S.
    1632. GONZALEZ, Enricka Marie L.
    1633. GORDONAS, Joana S.
    1634. GOTAMCO, Cecile Danica C.
    1635. GOTEESAN, Reeve Marlo Arturo S.
    1636. GRAGEDA, Mark Novem S.
    1637. GRANADA, Anna Jade L.
    1638. GRANDE, Omaira A.
    1639. GRATUITO, Langley P.
    1640. GRECIA, Ujell P.
    1641. GREGANA, Margrein Archernar M.
    1642. GREGORI, Jeorge H.
    1643. GREGORIO, Marti W.
    1644. GRUMEZ-GUINIR, Janice L.
    1645. GUANGA, Mary Grace B.
    1646. GUBATAN, Keiron Jems E.
    1647. GUERRERO, Juan Paulo R.
    1648. GUERRERO, Jun Matthew S.
    1649. GUERRERO, Marionne D.
    1650. GUESE-ROSALES, Cryzal Lyn B.
    1651. GUETA, Anthony V.
    1652. GUEVARA, Che Mayo M.
    1653. GUEVARA, Gelene Patricia S.
    1654. GUIANI, Jarissa G.
    1655. GUIDANGEN, Imelda D.
    1656. GUIDOTE, Isabel L.
    1657. GUIDOTE, JR., Jose Angel B.
    1658. GUILLAMON, Diane Steffi T.
    1659. GUILLANO, Marlo B.
    1660. GUILLARTE, Desserie Marie L.
    1661. GUILLERMO, Beatrice Valerie S.
    1662. GUILLERMO, Ellen Jane T.
    1663. GUINIGUNDO, Daniel Alberto G.
    1664. GUINTO, Vanessa Lou A.
    1665. GUISON, Anna Dominique L.
    1666. GUITELEN, Janice G.
    1667. GUIYAB, Abraham Alonzo O.
    1668. GULA, Maria Monica A.
    1669. GULBIN, Lou Ann C.
    1670. GUMA, Israel C.
    1671. GUMABOL, Vanessa Trina Carr B.
    1672. GUMANSING, Ellen A.
    1673. GUMAPAC, Ma. Angelica J.
    1674. GUMBA, Eduardo D.
    1675. GUMBAN, Maria Glenie V.
    1676. GURO, Jamaiyah G.
    1677. GURO, Jamjoom A.
    1678. GUTANG, Sheree Mae S.
    1679. GUTIERREZ, Andrea Jastine A.
    1680. GUTIERREZ, Eric Francis C.
    1681. GUTIERREZ, Rachelle Anne D.
    1682. GUTIERREZ, Wendy E.
    1683. GUTIERREZ, II, Cedric T.
    1684. GUYO, Anniebel D.
    1685. GUZMAN, Charalej B.
    1686. GUZON, Sherwin F.
    1687. HABANA, Gabriel Tomas M.
    1688. HAGORILES, Kathrina Vanessa Y.
    1689. HAMDAIN, Tasnem A.
    1690. HAMLIG, Noneluz I.
    1691. HAUTEA, Jose Alfonso T.
    1692. HAYAGAN, Jay Emmanuel A.
    1693. HAYCO, Love Faith P.
    1694. HEBRON, Amabelle A.
    1695. HENARES, Careen Alexandria J.
    1696. HERMOGENES, Nikki Rose A.
    1697. HERMOSISIMA, Christopher Albert C.
    1698. HERMOSO, Gemmarie T.
    1699. HERNAL, Ma. Angela L.
    1700. HERNANDEZ, Anabella D.
    1701. HERNANDEZ, Frauline Camille R.
    1702. HERNANDEZ, Joanie Charmaine B.
    1703. HERNANDEZ, Normida M.
    1704. HERNANDEZ, Ryan M.
    1705. HERNANDEZ, Shiela May H.
    1706. HERNANDEZ, Vanessa Rose S.
    1707. HERRERA, Henry Joseph L.
    1708. HERRERA, Norman Kelly C.
    1709. HICETA, Esteele Vanessa Ann A.
    1710. HIDALGO, John Paul H.
    1711. HIDUNG, Jenifer P.
    1712. HINAY, Fatima Sarpina P.
    1713. HINGPES, Mark Joseph B.
    1714. HIPOLITO, Melissa Jean G.
    1715. HIPONIA, Rhoan I.
    1716. HIRANG, Stephanie Anne L.
    1717. HIZON, John Restie T.
    1718. HOGGANG, Kathrine Mae M.
    1719. HOJILLA, Kate Aubrey G.
    1720. HOLANDAY, Lawrence P.
    1721. HOMBRADO-DURAN, Ana Liza P.
    1722. HOMBREBUENO-CADIZ, Emerald C.
    1723. HONCULADA, Ron Carlo I.
    1724. HONG, Janine Angeli R.
    1725. HUELAR, Gil Mae N.
    1726. HUMIWAT, John Stephen T.
    1727. HUSSIN, JR., Faizal M.
    1728. IBAY, Christopher David L.
    1729. ICALLA, Leo-mel Dennis B.
    1730. IGLESIA, Darlylon V.
    1731. IGNACIO, Eunice Anne C.
    1732. IGNACIO, Jonel B.
    1733. IGNACIO, Rod Peterson B.
    1734. IGNACIO, Rose Ann S.
    1735. IGNALAGA, Ma. Leny C.
    1736. ILAGAN, Jeffrey Louis G.
    1737. ILAGAN, Katrina Joy L.
    1738. ILAGAN, Lorlyn D.
    1739. ILANO, Carlo Angelito M.
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    1742. IMPERIAL, As P.
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    1745. IMPERIAL, Shiela O.
    1746. IMPERIO, Marc Aerone Paul DP.
    1747. INANDAN, Ian Jerrick B.
    1748. INCISO, Bliz Desery G.
    1749. INDASEN, Dexter Tonnette E.
    1750. INGUSAN, Arfine T.
    1751. INOCENTES, Katrina Bianca T.
    1752. INSERTO, Ma. Sonia V.
    1753. INTING, Niña Ma. Socorro B.
    1754. IQUIN, Roderick S.
    1755. IRADER, Mereyll Kyla P.
    1756. IRUGUIN, Edeliza M.
    1757. ISABEDRA, Marianne A.
    1758. ISIDERIO, Danilo C.
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    1760. ISIDRO-PACUNANA, Cleofe Joy A.
    1761. ISMULA, Mohar A.
    1762. ISOK, Michelle T.
    1763. ITABLE, Charmaine J.
    1764. ITAO, Deo Vincent B.
    1765. ITUMAY, Junsanly I.
    1766. JABIL, Jennifer D.
    1767. JABINES, Loueli T.
    1768. JACELA, Cirus Jansen P.
    1769. JALALON, Jamila Lou P.
    1770. JALIPA, Pevi Mae P.
    1771. JAMERO, Claire L.
    1772. JAMERO, JR., Jacinto R.
    1773. JAMISON, Marnelli L.
    1774. JAMONER, Winnie Claire L.
    1775. JAMORA, Jose Manuel M.
    1776. JANDUSAY, Crispin Francis M.
    1777. JANOLINO, JR., Rey P.
    1778. JAO, Stefan Andrew S.
    1779. JAUGAN, Carolyn C.
    1780. JAVELLANA, Christian Lloyd C.
    1781. JAVIER, Brian M.
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    1785. JAVIER, JR., Loreto G.
    1786. JAYME-GERALDOY, Joy Marie M.
    1787. JEJILLOS, Daniel L.
    1788. JIHAY, Al-shamir A.
    1789. JIMENEZ, Lina G.
    1790. JIMENEZ, Miriam Margaret E.
    1791. JIMENEZ, Vladimir T.
    1792. JIMENO, Grace Marie E.
    1793. JIMENO, Roselle I.
    1794. JINGCO, Maria Carmina C.
    1795. JOAQUIN, Louise Jessica P.
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    1797. JOHASAN, Waldemar B.
    1798. JOLBITADO, Vernon I.
    1799. JOLEJOLE, Katrina R.
    1800. JORDAN, Aemie Maria S.
    1801. JORDAN, Rebecca L.
    1802. JORNALES, Glenice Joy D.
    1803. JOSE, Justin Evan A.
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    1805. JOSE, Rhapsody P.
    1806. JOSEF, Lea Gay M.
    1807. JOSON, Junalyn T.
    1808. JOSON, Khail E.
    1809. JOVELLANOS, Edward Marc P.
    1810. JOVEN, Pamela T.
    1811. JOYA, Danica Janine H.
    1812. JOYAS, Edwin Lawrence B.
    1813. JUAN, Mark Jeffrey F.
    1814. JUAN, Monika Veron R.
    1815. JUANBE, Richelle Josephine B.
    1816. JUANICO, Maria Corazon J.
    1817. JUANILLO, Jennifer U.
    1818. JUCUTAN, Joyce G.
    1819. JUDILLA, Rhea Mae S.
    1820. JUDIT, Tyrone John C.
    1821. JUGUILON, Kim F.
    1822. JUICO, Ralph G.
    1823. JURADO, Rhodora Celia R.
    1824. JUSAY, Kathy M.
    1825. JUSAYAN, Tayron A.
    1826. KALAW, Ma. Rosa Vinia A.
    1827. KANG, Martina G.
    1828. KANITENG-TEOFILO, Edelcrist B.
    1829. KAPAMPANGAN, Alinaida M.
    1830. KASILAG, Carina O.
    1831. KATIGBAK, Karla Elaine L.
    1832. KEITH, Charles Simon Victor E.
    1833. KHAN, Stephanie Mariz C.
    1834. KHIO, Alanna Gayle Ashley B.
    1835. KHO, Ernizita B.
    1836. KHO, Lovely S.
    1837. KIMMAYONG, Jeeka G.
    1838. KINTANAR, Philip Tomas V.
    1839. KIPLI, Akmad Khan S.
    1840. KIW-IS, Marieth M.
    1841. KO, Renante O.
    1842. KOH, Brian Rossner L.
    1843. KUIVANEN, Regina R.
    1844. KUNG, Edward Kenneth A.
    1845. KYAMKO, III, Nicolas R.
    1846. LABAJO, Paola Katerina V.
    1847. LABANON, Lisha Marie V.
    1848. LABASAN, Kim Lauris M.
    1849. LABASTIDA, Daisy Mae Luinor A.
    1850. LABE, JR., Roberto V.
    1851. LABINE, Lynor A.
    1852. LABRADO, JR., Jay Ronald Emil John D.
    1853. LABRADORES, Billy Anjo A.
    1854. LACAMBRA, Sieramon A.
    1855. LACANARIA, Aljean M.
    1856. LACANDAZO, Anna Barbara O.
    1857. LACONICO, Marbeth C.
    1858. LACSON, Maria Florencia Alicia S.
    1859. LACWASAN, Sigrid K.
    1860. LADANGA, Wilfred Raphidim L.
    1861. LADISLAO, Edmon Dale P.
    1862. LADONGA, Leomar D.
    1863. LAENO, Erose Marlo C.
    1864. LAGA, John Rey J.
    1865. LAGANCE, Wilma M.
    1866. LAGARAS, Jim B.
    1867. LAGAS, Diovane B.
    1868. LAGCAO, Florence D.
    1869. LAGMAN, Francisco Ferdinand F.
    1870. LAGMAY, Martin Alfredo Benjamin T.
    1871. LAGON, Jesse Joe D.
    1872. LAGUISMA-ROQUE, Anabelle P.
    1873. LAGUNDE, Glaiza Mae L.
    1874. LAHAT, Charmelaine A.
    1875. LAIDAN, Kristoffer B.
    1876. LAIGO, Christian R.
    1877. LAINEZ, Senen Antonio B.
    1878. LAJARA, Paul Gabriel M.
    1879. LAJARA, Servilla B.
    1880. LAJARATO, Khalil B.
    1881. LAKIM, Nurwahid N.
    1882. LAMARCA, Pola Lia Celina L.
    1883. LAMBO, Bon Basil A.
    1884. LAMORENA, Ma. Alyssa Jeline A.
    1885. LAMUG, Juliever R.
    1886. LANDRITO, Reggie Ann G.
    1887. LANG-AY, Lobayto P.
    1888. LANSANGAN, Charmaine P.
    1889. LANSANGAN, Leslie B.
    1890. LANTIN, Lorna L.
    1891. LANTIN, Stephen Chris M.
    1892. LANTING, Jualie Labette Marie M.
    1893. LAO, Camille Annika O.
    1894. LAO, Fiona Cristy D.
    1895. LAO, Perry Evan C.
    1896. LAOT, Rio Angelika M.
    1897. LAPAT, Allan Tomas G.
    1898. LAPID, John Dx S.
    1899. LAPID, Margaret Joyce R.
    1900. LAPORE, Cristopher N.
    1901. LAPPAY, May Rose Abigail A.
    1902. LARA, Peter Joseph C.
    1903. LARCIA, Leo Angelo M.
    1904. LAROSA, Bienvenido J.
    1905. LARUTA, Michael Joseph B.
    1906. LASALA, Frances Dolor C.
    1907. LASALA, Renan Norbert C.
    1908. LASAM, Gloria Anastasha T.
    1909. LASAY, JR., Tirso S.
    1910. LASCANO, Karell Marie G.
    1911. LASQUITE, Justin G.
    1912. LATAUAN, Edcar T.
    1913. LATOSA, Lilian Fatima D.
    1914. LAUBAN, Mohajiroe M.
    1915. LAUD-BEGYAN, Hazel Ivory R.
    1916. LAURE-CAPILLA, Celeste Ann G.
    1917. LAUREL, Dianne Elizabeth M.
    1918. LAUS, Keo C.
    1919. LAVADIA, Ayra Patria C.
    1920. LAVAPIE, Kathreen Grace D.
    1921. LAVIÑA, Robert T.
    1922. LAXINTO, Nonie R.
    1923. LAYGO, Angelica A.
    1924. LAYNES, Daniel L.
    1925. LAYOGAN, Fely A.
    1926. LAYUG, Gemma Lynne P.
    1927. LAYUG, Mark A.
    1928. LAZARO, JR., Hermoso D.
    1929. LAZO, Johnson Robert A.
    1930. LAZO, Saul Paulo A.
    1931. LEAL, Katrina S.
    1932. LEBECO, Rex E.
    1933. LEDESMA, Rhodora M.
    1934. LEE, Eunice Faye S.
    1935. LEE, Eusebio K.
    1936. LEE, Katherine C.
    1937. LEE, Ma. Lucille P.
    1938. LEE, Mary Kristal M.
    1939. LEE, Sang Mee A.
    1940. LEE, Vanedy N.
    1941. LEGARA, Luz Diane G.
    1942. LEGARDA, Maryluz Regina M.
    1943. LEGASPI, Gretchen P.
    1944. LEGASPI, JR., Manuel I.
    1945. LEGASPI, V, Ramon D.
    1946. LEGO, Lily Ann B.
    1947. LEGUIN, Queenie L.
    1948. LEM-EW, Randy W.
    1949. LEMMAO, Charnette C.
    1950. LENCIO, Angelmhina D.
    1951. LENTEJAS, Janeth C.
    1952. LEONARDO, Jonathan Oliver L.
    1953. LEONIDA, Kerwin Gerard Reynato U.
    1954. LEONIDAS, Maria Karisa Joy C.
    1955. LERIO, Earl Christian L.
    1956. LESIGUES, Jinky C.
    1957. LEYNES, Albert T.
    1958. LEYNES, Eugenio M.
    1959. LI, Gilyen Ezra Marie L.
    1960. LIAO, Mai Doloseile K.
    1961. LIBAN, Leomar P.
    1962. LIBAN-CANAPI, Ma. Lorely L.
    1963. LIBAYO, Lailanie M.
    1964. LIBOON, Ma. Angelica M.
    1965. LIBUTAN-DUEÑAS, Cyd Kristine Daphne S.
    1966. LICAROS, III, Andres L.
    1967. LICUP, Shiela May R.
    1968. LIGDO, Roger L.
    1969. LIKIGAN, Jaybee Lyn G.
    1970. LIM, Antonette Kristie C.
    1971. LIM, Claire D.
    1972. LIM, Ekeena O.
    1973. LIM, Evan Clark P.
    1974. LIM, Francis Edward M.
    1975. LIM, Jacqueline Ruth A.
    1976. LIM, Jordan Andrew Q.
    1977. LIM, Ma. Concepcion S.
    1978. LIM, Markin A.
    1979. LIM, Nathalie Keiko M.
    1980. LIM, Riza O.
    1981. LIM TAMPOS, Emmanuel A.
    1982. LIMANDONG, Khadija U.
    1983. LIMJOCO, Maria Theresa F.
    1984. LIMMAYOG, Jan Michael G.
    1985. LIMOT, Ruth R.
    1986. LIMSON, Chastinne Mae M.
    1987. LINGAT, Tanya G.
    1988. LINGAYO, Kristine E.
    1989. LINMAYOG, Laurel L.
    1990. LIONG, Athalia B.
    1991. LIONG, Stacy Lyn Y.
    1992. LIRA, Zosimo, Jr. P.
    1993. LISTONES, Bradly F.
    1994. LIU, Andrew Stephen D.
    1995. LIVELO, Katerina Mae G.
    1996. LIWAG, Ivory C.
    1997. LIWANAG, Kristine Anne D.
    1998. LIZA, Rynelle H.
    1999. LLAMASARES, Anna Liza L.
    2000. LLANES-LAVIÑA, Nilda
    2001. LLANTINO, Ma. Genina B.
    2002. LLANTO, Reggie B.
    2003. LLARINA, Maria Elaine R.
    2004. LLENO, Paola Kathlynn Q.
    2005. LLOREN, Christina Marie F.
    2006. LO, Louis Marshall R.
    2007. LOBCHOY, Daryll M.
    2008. LOBENDINO, Katrina L.
    2009. LOBO, Joter M.
    2010. LOFRANCO, Mary Stephanne A.
    2011. LOMONDOT-ADIONG, Sittie Aliyyah A.
    2012. LONCION, Madelone C.
    2013. LONGBOY, Suzette M.
    2014. LOPEZ, Enrico P.
    2015. LOPEZ, John Paul L.
    2016. LOPEZ, Maria Lucia B.
    2017. LOPEZ, Ponce Miguel D.
    2018. LOPEZ, Ramil D.
    2019. LOPEZ, Shena Marie A.
    2020. LOPEZ, Victor Rico P.
    2021. LORCHA, Anthony R.
    2022. LOREMAS, Connie Joyce R.
    2023. LORENO, JR., Alvaro P.
    2024. LORENZO, Kimberly Anne M.
    2025. LOZANO, Kevin Jardine Lucky S.
    2026. LOZANO, Maria Angelyn A.
    2027. LUCAS, Gian Jordan R.
    2028. LUCAS, Ma. Katrina F.
    2029. LUCENA-BARAWID, Ronalyn B.
    2030. LUCERO, Mats E.
    2031. LUCEÑA-ENCARNACION, La Salette R.
    2032. LUCIANO, Noel Christian O.
    2033. LUCMAN, Raihana Menelifa T.
    2034. LUCMAN, Sheham S.
    2035. LUD-AYEN, Ma. Desiree Zan L.
    2036. LUGTU, Carlota C.
    2037. LUMABAS, Fatima Leoan T.
    2038. LUMANGLAS, Dexter Jonas M.
    2039. LUMANTAS, Jessa Faith S.
    2040. LUMBATAN, Fender Rhodes B.
    2041. LUMBERIO-REGALIZA, Mary Luz M.
    2042. LUNA, Lester June S.
    2043. LUPANGO, Lupo L.
    2044. LUSPIAN, Lloyd Matt Garette B.
    2045. LUSPO, Argelyn A.
    2046. LUYAO, Rodelo D.
    2047. LUZANO, Melissa Faye T.
    2048. LUZUNG, Noel M.
    2049. MABALOT, Adelaide B.
    2050. MABALOT, Jarodelyn N.
    2051. MABAO, Ericson B.
    2052. MABAYO, Hannah L.
    2053. MABUTAS, Jonn Carlo L.
    2054. MACAIBA, Walter M.
    2055. MACALALAD, Agatha Bernice G.
    2056. MACALALAG, Christian Ace P.
    2057. MACALANDA, Ronald O.
    2058. MACALINTAL, Victor Roy G.
    2059. MACALOS, Ronald J.
    2060. MACAM, Mianol P.
    2061. MACAPAAR, Casan, Jr. M.
    2062. MACAPAGAL, Hector Mayel D.
    2063. MACAPALA, Charlton M.
    2064. MACAPINTAL, Al-money S.
    2065. MACAPOBRE, Julie B.
    2066. MACARAEG, III, Feliciano L.
    2067. MACARAYA, Muamar A.
    2068. MACARIO, Lendy C.
    2069. MACASA, Mary Lorraine A.
    2070. MACASO, Lilibeth M.
    2071. MACATANGAY, Maria Theresa T.
    2072. MACATO, Princess N.
    2073. MACAYRA, Maria Lady Hope J.
    2074. MACEDA, Chatti Pauline M.
    2075. MACEDA, Mary Joan Dorothy Joy B.
    2076. MACHADO, Jerica Clara S.
    2077. MADAMBA, Euler Paul Y.
    2078. MADAMBA, Jeny Anne D.
    2079. MADAMBA, Marlon D.
    2080. MADAMBA-REYES, Elizabeth T.
    2081. MADANGUIT, Marc Gretel R.
    2082. MADCHIW, Beverly Marie G.
    2083. MADERAL, Divina Gracia V.
    2084. MADRID, Adonis A.
    2085. MADRID, Joyce Anne O.
    2086. MADRID, Melben Rey M.
    2087. MADRID, JR., Rainier P.
    2088. MADUM, Anisah D.
    2089. MADUM, Raihana M.
    2090. MAESTRE-TABBU, Nita-doreen L.
    2091. MAGAIPO, Marvin A.
    2092. MAGALGALIT, JR., Edward C.
    2093. MAGALLANO, Ronald I.
    2094. MAGALLANO, Seigfred C.
    2095. MAGALLONES, Ma. Cristina G.
    2096. MAGARDE, Andene Philip S.
    2097. MAGAT, Ruth Chrissa G.
    2098. MAGBATO, Ellery G.
    2099. MAGBOO, Khristopher Ian D.
    2100. MAGBUHOS, Francis Lorenz N.
    2101. MAGDOZA, Bregette U.
    2102. MAGKASI-LUNARIA, Hanna Kathrina B.
    2103. MAGLASANG, Laarni C.
    2104. MAGLINAO, Jennevieve Jane R.
    2105. MAGNO, Mark Bryan R.
    2106. MAGPAYO, Erika Llyssa G.
    2107. MAGQUILAT, Rosemarie C.
    2108. MAGRACIA, Jan Karlo S.
    2109. MAGSANAY, Vanessa P.
    2110. MAGSINO, Meynard H.
    2111. MAGSUMBOL, Ma. Rosalynn A.
    2112. MAGSUMBOL, Stephanie Ellaine B.
    2113. MAGTABOG, Jennylyn P.
    2114. MAGTANAO, Maria Cristina R.
    2115. MAGTIBAY, Ira Miriam S.
    2116. MAGTIBAY, Sahlyna Mia Edly A.
    2117. MAGTOTO, Ma. Kimberly T.
    2118. MAGUDDATU, Jay-ar S.
    2119. MAGUEN, Michelle Joan S.
    2120. MAGUILAO, Rhea B.
    2121. MAHIDLAWON, Jayvee A.
    2122. MAICO, Ma. Noelle A.
    2123. MAING, Amir Abdulla H.
    2124. MAISO, Carla Blanca S.
    2125. MALA, Farrahmila A.
    2126. MALA-ATAO, Norjana R.
    2127. MALABAD, Rachel Antonette C.
    2128. MALABAG, Rowell B.
    2129. MALABANAN, Enrico P.
    2130. MALALU-AN, Racel D.
    2131. MALALUAN, Rogelyn P.
    2132. MALAN, Marianne Therese A.
    2133. MALANA, Micha Chernobyl L.
    2134. MALASI, Arlene M.
    2135. MALATEO, Bevienne G.
    2136. MALAWANI, Armen Rashid O.
    2137. MALBAS, Precious R.
    2138. MALBOG, Orpha Faith B.
    2139. MALCAMPO, Rea Jane B.
    2140. MALE, Zyra Mae R.
    2141. MALHABOUR, Mark P.
    2142. MALIGAYA, Joharic A.
    2143. MALIGAYA, Leah Anne R.
    2144. MALIGAYA, Michaela Paola A.
    2145. MALIGAYO, April Pauliene D.
    2146. MALIGMAT, Ruby Rose R.
    2147. MALLARI, Aikko Kris F.
    2148. MALLARI, Francis Burt M.
    2149. MALLARI, Ma. Cristina M.
    2150. MALLILLIN, Anthony F.
    2151. MALUPENG, Carla Rose R.
    2152. MAMAO, Arief A.
    2153. MAMAUAG, Manolo Francis V.
    2154. MAMONDIONG, Rayhanie P.
    2155. MAMURI, Roxanne M.
    2156. MANA-A, Renato B.
    2157. MANAHAN, Kharis M.
    2158. MANAHAN, Princez Jazzmine B.
    2159. MANALANG, Alberto D.
    2160. MANALO, Carmina May C.
    2161. MANALO, Kristine Mae C.
    2162. MANALO, Manfred Neale M.
    2163. MANALO, Roanne May M.
    2164. MANALO, Romina Rae R.
    2165. MANANSALA, Misty J.
    2166. MANANSALA, Tessa Lonica A.
    2167. MANAOIS-RABAGO, Blesila C.
    2168. MANAPSAL, Ma. Lourdes Angelynne D.
    2169. MANCENIDO, Ernest Paul B.
    2170. MANCERAS, Razelle S.
    2171. MANCOL, Simeon Archie T.
    2172. MANDAP, Mary Jane R.
    2173. MANDIA, Laurie Jean F.
    2174. MANEJA-PANDA, Katherine A.
    2175. MANGAHAS, Kristal N.
    2176. MANGATA, Alyssa Nezren P.
    2177. MANGLIOAN, Carlo O.
    2178. MANGLIWAN, Rendel C.
    2179. MANGONDATO, Hannah P.
    2180. MANGRUBANG, Mary Grace D.
    2181. MANGUBAT-TORRALBA, Aurora B.
    2182. MANGUNE, Jeffrey M.
    2183. MANICAP, Joyce Marie M.
    2184. MANINGO, Gary V.
    2185. MANIPON, George Henry A.
    2186. MANIQUEZ, Jennifer B.
    2187. MANIQUIS, Kurt Eiyan G.
    2188. MANITO, Reginald Michael C.
    2189. MANIÑGAS, Marie Jean P.
    2190. MANLANGIT, Myra M.
    2191. MANONDO, Nelson A.
    2192. MANONGGIRING, Saripah D.
    2193. MANONGSONG, Katherine Jocel M.
    2194. MANSION, Eunice R.
    2195. MANSUJETO, Tosca Leira Ella G.
    2196. MANUALES, Eisone Brix R.
    2197. MANUEL, April F.
    2198. MANUEL, Marlyn Christine O.
    2199. MANUEL, Mary Grace O.
    2200. MANUEL, William Ray B.
    2201. MANZANILLA, Marielle V.
    2202. MANZANO, Reychelle C.
    2203. MANZON, Bismarck Ignatius M.
    2204. MAPA, Mary Grace C.
    2205. MAPANAO, Joan Michelle B.
    2206. MAQUILING, Gjehan Mei S.
    2207. MAQUILING, Jasmine Rose B.
    2208. MARAMBA, Maria Mercedes T.
    2209. MARANAN, Giselle Ann P.
    2210. MARASIGAN, Mary Remie Jane T.
    2211. MARATAS-BACERA, Rachel Mernil O.
    2212. MARAVILLA, Jose Cezar N.
    2213. MARAYAG, Myrtle V.
    2214. MARAÑO, Jeffrey A.
    2215. MARCAIDA, IV, Eduardo D.
    2216. MARCELO, Anna Teresita A.
    2217. MARCELO, Jerome Brian T.
    2218. MARCELO, Kara Chriselle S.
    2219. MARCELO, Ludy Rose D.
    2220. MARCELO, Mark Joseph E.
    2221. MARCERA, Alfons Janssen P.
    2222. MARCO, Giulia L.
    2223. MARCOS, Darwin P.
    2224. MARCOS, Jerome G.
    2225. MARFIL, Jude Amadeus R.
    2226. MARGALLO, JR., Antonio A.
    2227. MARGARICO-CASQUEJO, Lilibeth S.
    2228. MARI, Diana R.
    2229. MARIANO, Cristoffer M.
    2230. MARIANO, Gerard Peter C.
    2231. MARIANO, Patricia Luz M.
    2232. MARIANO, Rechille Ann A.
    2233. MARIBAO, Rizzi Angelica V.
    2234. MARIGONDON, Mary Ann B.
    2235. MARIN, Jose Carlos P.
    2236. MARISTELA, Jezreel Kiel M.
    2237. MARMETO, James Oscar R.
    2238. MARONILLA, Atom James C.
    2239. MARPURI, Lailanie R.
    2240. MARPURI, Michael M.
    2241. MARQUEZ, Allan Peter C.
    2242. MARQUEZ, April Gwen T.
    2243. MARQUEZ, Claudia Susan A.
    2244. MARQUEZ, Hannah Camille A.
    2245. MARQUEZ, Jowee Ann D.
    2246. MARQUEZ, Lean A.
    2247. MARTEL, Carlo Martin D.
    2248. MARTIL, Yussif Don Justin F.
    2249. MARTINEZ, Airos Kent P.
    2250. MARTINEZ, Ambrosio Maria M.
    2251. MARTINEZ, Anna Clarice L.
    2252. MARTINEZ, Anna Queen Gloria A.
    2253. MARTINEZ, Czarina Cherizze C.
    2254. MARTINEZ, Denmark R.
    2255. MARTINEZ, Gary Louie D.
    2256. MARTINEZ, Kathrina H.
    2257. MARTINEZ, Loren A.
    2258. MARTINEZ, Ruther N.
    2259. MARTINEZ, Sheila May M.
    2260. MARTINEZ, Wilfred Francis B.
    2261. MARTINEZ-CLEMENTE, Jocelyn Z.
    2262. MARTINEZ-LACSAMANA, Krizzy Gayle C.
    2263. MARTINEZ-QUIROGA, Angeline A.
    2264. MARU, Alyssa Rei L.
    2265. MARUHOM, Ebno Abdul Majid C.
    2266. MARZAN, Florianne D.
    2267. MARZAN, Marey Beth D.
    2268. MASACAL, Najirah P.
    2269. MASAGA, Winfred Gerard E.
    2270. MASAHUD, Mariam Genevieve A.
    2271. MASALUÑGA, Aimee T.
    2272. MASANGCAY, Magnolia M.
    2273. MASANGKAY, JR., Bernardo A.
    2274. MASAOY, Glaiza Mae G.
    2275. MASCARDO, Joyce Anne V.
    2276. MATA, Aldo Rex C.
    2277. MATA, Melo Jean G.
    2278. MATA, Reymafer P.
    2279. MATAMIS, Marvin R.
    2280. MATANOG, Mahleyl B.
    2281. MATIAS, Michael Roman E.
    2282. MATIBAG, Aries A.
    2283. MATIENZO, Aurora S.
    2284. MATILLANO, Maria Victoria Z.
    2285. MATIONG, Mary Beatrice M.
    2286. MATONDO, Elmero L.
    2287. MAUNAHAN, John Wendell G.
    2288. MAYLON, Ron Stephane P.
    2289. MAYOR, Christina P.
    2290. MAYUGA, Frederick B.
    2291. MAZO, Edward Jude S.
    2292. MAÑALAC, Rizza Mariz P.
    2293. MAÑGASER-YMSON, Adelma Faye S.
    2294. MEDINA, Abbie Shenn T.
    2295. MEDINA, Charm Krizia L.
    2296. MEDINA, John Angelo S.
    2297. MEDINA, John Matthew R.
    2298. MEDINA, Reychelle May B.
    2299. MEDINA-CABUTIHAN, Ma. Richam A.
    2300. MEDRANO, Pamela Bianca C.
    2301. MEJIA, Angela Mericci G.
    2302. MEJIA, Charmaine P.
    2303. MEJILLANO, Miguelle Kassandra S.
    2304. MEJORADA, Leo Nicanor B.
    2305. MELCHOR, JR., Rodrigo E.
    2306. MELICOR, Joreyna Mae T.
    2307. MELOSANTOS, Andrea Beatrice D.
    2308. MEMPIN, Van Oliver V.
    2309. MENDAME, JR., Edwin N.
    2310. MENDIOLA, Anne Bernadette A.
    2311. MENDOZA, Agnes Bianca L.
    2312. MENDOZA, Aldrick Daven M.
    2313. MENDOZA, Alexandria Z.
    2314. MENDOZA, Alwyn P.
    2315. MENDOZA, Angela M.
    2316. MENDOZA, Gio Carlo C.
    2317. MENDOZA, Jocelin R.
    2318. MENDOZA, John Kenner M.
    2319. MENDOZA, Kristal Jane D.
    2320. MENDOZA, Ma. Josefina E.
    2321. MENDOZA, Maria Monica Pamela I.
    2322. MENDOZA, Meldrick John M.
    2323. MENDOZA, Ralph C.
    2324. MENDOZA, Rey Marco B.
    2325. MENDOZA, Reyaine A.
    2326. MENDOZA, Ruela C.
    2327. MENDOZA, Salud Katrina D.
    2328. MENDOZA, III, Ambrosio S.
    2329. MENDOZA, JR., Edgar Carlos G.
    2330. MENDOZA-TORREDES, Medolyn L.
    2331. MENGOTE, Pemari Kresta K.
    2332. MENGUITO, Christopher John C.
    2333. MENTINO, Ruwila Anne Marie M.
    2334. MERAÑEZ, Marie Jean B.
    2335. MERCADO, Carlo Marco Q.
    2336. MERCADO, Christopher Dann C.
    2337. MERCADO, Enrique Miguel Y.
    2338. MERCADO, Generson Paul H.
    2339. MERCADO, Raymond Joseph V.
    2340. MERCED, III, Cecilio E.
    2341. MERCED-PESCASIOSA, Marion R.
    2342. MERINO, Marcelli T.
    2343. MERZA, Bryan C.
    2344. MERZA, Katherine Rose T.
    2345. MESINA, Gerald P.
    2346. METRAN, Jean Mae B.
    2347. MIBOLOS, Thomas Joseph L.
    2348. MIER, Sigrid Kim G.
    2349. MIGUEL, Cristina C.
    2350. MIGUEL, Rendolph D.
    2351. MIJARES, Joy Pauline G.
    2352. MILANA, Ceril Johnson A.
    2353. MILLA, Marvin L.
    2354. MILLAN, Maria Ruffa V.
    2355. MILO, Mary Rose N.
    2356. MINA, Brynn A.
    2357. MINA, Lydia Marie Zyrah MZ.
    2358. MINA-REGINALDO, Marites E.
    2359. MINDALANO, Anna Farinah B.
    2360. MINGUEZ, Neal Chester V.
    2361. MIRALLES-NOFUENTE, Marilyn C.
    2362. MIRANDA, Rachelle Anne J.
    2363. MIRANDA, Raniel C.
    2364. MIRINDATO, Suminigay P.
    2365. MIÑAS, Katherine P.
    2366. MODESTO, Mylene F.
    2367. MODINA, Kara Jo Aiza R.
    2368. MOELLER, Julius Oliver P.
    2369. MOELLER, Yasmine P.
    2370. MOHAMMAD, Almundir Z.
    2371. MOJAL-INFANTE, Leonelle C.
    2372. MOJICA, Ma. Cristina R.
    2373. MOLAVE, Kenneth Peter D.
    2374. MOLEÑO, Aishettea Ace P.
    2375. MOLINA, Wilfredo C.
    2376. MOLINTAS, Jose Mari O.
    2377. MOLLENO-PLACIDO, Gemmalu O.
    2378. MOLVIZAR, Jennifer A.
    2379. MOMBAY, Irish B.
    2380. MOMONGAN, Anne Margaret E.
    2381. MONDAY, Lyndon Evans P.
    2382. MONDRAGON, Mary Gretchen S.
    2383. MONFORTE, Matthew C.
    2384. MONGE, Ernest Ryan I.
    2385. MONSANTO, JR., Cleto E.
    2386. MONSERATE, Leobelle May P.
    2387. MONTAÑEZ, Alpha S.
    2388. MONTECLAR, JR., Ezem Manuelito G.
    2389. MONTEJO, Abel C.
    2390. MONTEJO, Sheena Mae B.
    2391. MONTENEGRO, Rosalinda A.
    2392. MONTERONA, Iris Lenore B.
    2393. MONTES, Analee B.
    2394. MONTEVIRGEN, Jay Rayniel P.
    2395. MONTEVIRGEN, Richmond C.
    2396. MONTEZA, Shermin Mae C.
    2397. MONZON, Chynah Marie M.
    2398. MORA, JR., Remegio D.
    2399. MORADA, Jerome Vincent C.
    2400. MORADOS, Pius G.
    2401. MORAGA, Angelo M.
    2402. MORAL, Relson P.
    2403. MORALES, Janneil Monica C.
    2404. MORALES, Julia Marie S.
    2405. MORALES, Sheena Marie T.
    2406. MORALES, Viktor Ivan Nicolo T.
    2407. MORAN-VIDAL, Rosalisa Liboria C.
    2408. MORATA, Fely M.
    2409. MORATAL, Deanler B.
    2410. MORENO, Fritz L.
    2411. MORENO, Renee R.
    2412. MORES, Kent Davies B.
    2413. MORILLA, Justin Ryan D.
    2414. MORO, Carlo Luis C.
    2415. MORO, Wrichelle C.
    2416. MORTE, Michelle G.
    2417. MORTEGA, Matthew M.
    2418. MUGAS, Vi Marie N.
    2419. MULAAN, Lyn O.
    2420. MULI, Donnie-ray B.
    2421. MULLES, Lisa D.
    2422. MUNCADA, Gil S.
    2423. MUNSAYAC, Gabrielle R.
    2424. MUPAS, Jessica Lyn T.
    2425. MURILLO, Maria Fe Gloria B.
    2426. MUSA, Bai Alefha Hannah M.
    2427. MUSA-BARRAT, Aisa B.
    2428. MUSNI, Merwen Wretzel Q.
    2429. MUSNI, YR., Beverly Ann S.
    2430. MUSTAPHA, Nasroding M.
    2431. MUTI, Khasamera A.
    2432. MUTI, Nusaybah L.
    2433. MUÑOZ, Marnel D.
    2434. NABAYSA-GOSINGAN, Jacquiline G.
    2435. NALIA, Ellen R.
    2436. NAMINGIT, Presley John L.
    2437. NAMLA, Alman-najar L.
    2438. NANGCAS, Jeddah May C.
    2439. NANIT, John Paul Z.
    2440. NAPIGQUIT, John Winston B.
    2441. NAPIZA, Rootbeer Marie C.
    2442. NAPULAN, Jonica Rei A.
    2443. NARAG, Aurelle Dominic E.
    2444. NASAYAO, Kathreen Ciela A.
    2445. NATANAUAN, Divina Rosa H.
    2446. NATANAUAN, Junmar D.
    2447. NATAVIO, Rhea S.
    2448. NATIVIDAD, Krystel P.
    2449. NATURA, Elilyn T.
    2450. NAUNGAYAN, Judelyn G.
    2451. NAVAL, Lhem J.
    2452. NAVAL, Maria Mykeana C.
    2453. NAVALES, Michael Duane D.
    2454. NAVAREZ, Cid Jerome O.
    2455. NAVARRA, JR., Geoffrey P.
    2456. NAVARRETE, Angelica S.
    2457. NAVARRO, Rudelyn C.
    2458. NAVIDAD, Carence Janelle C.
    2459. NEBAB, Jenuaree G.
    2460. NEBRES, Sidney E.
    2461. NECESARIO, Archie R.
    2462. NEJUDNE, Kristine I.
    2463. NEM SINGH, Kyle Jorrel A.
    2464. NEMIS, Kristina Jane G.
    2465. NEREZ, Paul Joseph L.
    2466. NERI, Ernesto B.
    2467. NG SY, Ma. Katrina Cassandra F.
    2468. NGIPOL, Dexter B.
    2469. NGITTIT, Dena O.
    2470. NGO, John Timothy L.
    2471. NGO, Perpetua Calliope C.
    2472. NGO, Rachelle L.
    2473. NIFRAS, Ma. Cristina Filomena G.
    2474. NIOG, Ma. Florenz L.
    2475. NOA, Monique Camille Z.
    2476. NOBLE, Charissa T.
    2477. NOCON, Audrey Rose S.
    2478. NOEL, III, Federico Felipe G.
    2479. NOGRA, Vincent Von A.
    2480. NOVICIO, Felix Leonard S.
    2481. NOVILLA, Rozenn G.
    2482. NOYA, Joan N.
    2483. NUESCA, Christopher B.
    2484. NUQUI, Alyssa Hannah R.
    2485. NUÑEZ, Juneza V.
    2486. NUÑEZ, Michael Trance Joseph M.
    2487. OANI, Darlene N.
    2488. OASAY, Mary Jane Y.
    2489. OBA, Masami Yrvin B.
    2490. OBBANIA, Maria B.
    2491. OBEDO, Krisven Mae R.
    2492. OBENZA, Sean Kristoffer H.
    2493. OBERIO, Christian N.
    2494. OBESO, Karren Mae T.
    2495. OCAMPO, Alex Matthew U.
    2496. OCAMPO, Alvin S.
    2497. OCAMPO, Christopher Estelito A.
    2498. OCAMPO, Elena P.
    2499. OCAMPO, Glenn Albert M.
    2500. OCAMPO, II, Milagros S.
    2501. OCAMPOS, Goldberg D.
    2502. OCBINA, Jesus Reagan O.
    2503. OCCEÑA, Irving V.
    2504. OCHARON, Ma. Corazon P.
    2505. OCHOA, Kara Czarina B.
    2506. OCTA, Kalvin V.
    2507. ODAK, Kenneth Ray A.
    2508. ODIO, Leo J.
    2509. ODON, Lito E.
    2510. OFTANA, Janette E.
    2511. OGALINO, Genevie C.
    2512. OGATIS, Victoria Flor P.
    2513. OJEDA, Edsyl N.
    2514. OLADO, Russel Marvin G.
    2515. OLAGUER, Denise Alexandra P.
    2516. OLAYA, JR., Isidro T.
    2517. OLAYTA, Jester Kutch A.
    2518. OLEDAN, Kym Ashley A.
    2519. OLEGARIO, Myr-ann L.
    2520. OLIMPO, Lester A.
    2521. OLIVA, Maria Cecilia Y.
    2522. OLIVAR, JR., Jesus P.
    2523. OLIVEROS, Althea R.
    2524. OLIVEROS, Alvan Stephenson G.
    2525. OLUT, Mary Joy P.
    2526. OMAMBAC, Zyra R.
    2527. OMEGA, Alfie L.
    2528. OMEGA, Donald Dwight A.
    2529. ONG, Aristotle A.
    2530. ONG, Ayzeris B.
    2531. ONG, David Bryan T.
    2532. ONG, Fina N.
    2533. ONG, Gregory, Ii L.
    2534. ONG, Rey Benedict D.
    2535. ONG, Sherylle T.
    2536. ONG LOPEZ, Jobelle Lynn C.
    2537. ONGCANGCO, Kristine Claire E.
    2538. ONIA, Arnold G.
    2539. ONQUIT, Michael Eric S.
    2540. ONTOG, Martin P.
    2541. OPAY, Myraflor L.
    2542. OPENDO, Mia M.
    2543. OPERIANO, Gideon Joseph B.
    2544. OPLE, Lester Nazarene V.
    2545. ORAJAY, Ronie L.
    2546. ORALLO, Kenneth Aldrin M.
    2547. ORAS, Phylian Corazon W.
    2548. ORAT, Kenn O.
    2549. ORBINA, Mcgyver Gerard S.
    2550. ORGANIS, Joanne D.
    2551. ORIA, Jilliane Joy M.
    2552. ORO, Marinel D.
    2553. OROZCO, Mayda V.
    2554. ORQUILLAS, Jan Elson G.
    2555. ORTALEZA, Roxan Desiree T.
    2556. ORTEGA, Clare Marie F.
    2557. ORTEGA, Editha Y.
    2558. ORTEGA, Gretchen Mae B.
    2559. ORTIGAS, Eric Volter A.
    2560. ORTILANO-CAJILO, April Joy A.
    2561. ORTINEZ, Ranelene S.
    2562. ORTIZ, Laurence Susan P.
    2563. ORTIZ, Lawrence Gerard T.
    2564. ORTIZ, Pamela Luz I.
    2565. ORTONIO, Emmanuel G.
    2566. OSCARIS, Winston D.
    2567. OSORIO, Kristiane N.
    2568. OSORIO, Rosanna S.
    2569. OSTERIA, Ma. Clarisse S.
    2570. OSTREA, Michael Jan B.
    2571. OTAZA, JR., Potenciano Bob Q.
    2572. OTERO, Christine Angeli C.
    2573. OTERO, Jann Roby R.
    2574. OTICAL, Fahmie M.
    2575. OZAETA, Glenda Vi L.
    2576. OZOA, Manuel Zosimo M.
    2577. OÑEZ, Ralphmar M.
    2578. PAAT, Hazel-anne U.
    2579. PABAYA, Pauline Khalil R.
    2580. PABILLORE, Jonathan A.
    2581. PABLO, Jasmine Joy C.
    2582. PABLO, JR., Henry C.
    2583. PABLO-SANTOS, Cherry Lynn C.
    2584. PACAANAS-SODUSTA, Joy Q.
    2585. PACATANG, Iven B.
    2586. PACCARANGAN, Marlon B.
    2587. PACHECO, Agnes S.
    2588. PACHORO, Jose Gabriel B.
    2589. PACLAR, Shehershane V.
    2590. PACUBAS, Michelle Ann D.
    2591. PADAWAG, Belner D.
    2592. PADDIT, Regina C.
    2593. PADERANGA, Joy W.
    2594. PADERNA, Norita Korina P.
    2595. PADERNAL, Herman Jae Ii C.
    2596. PADIERNOS, Jan Rurik D.
    2597. PADIERNOS, Maricel B.
    2598. PADILLA, Pia Zandrina T.
    2599. PADILLA, III, Rustico D.
    2600. PADON, Catherine A.
    2601. PADUA, Donna Mae H.
    2602. PADUADA, Darius Francis M.
    2603. PAEZ, Rhoebe Christie V.
    2604. PAG-ONG, JR., Victoriano E.
    2605. PAGADDUT, JR., Santiago L.
    2606. PAGALA-CALARA, Jonalene A.
    2607. PAGAPONG, Ceasar, Jr. G.
    2608. PAGARIGAN, Melissa Dominique B.
    2609. PAGARIGAN, Stacy Anne V.
    2610. PAGDANGANAN, Carlos Lorenzo B.
    2611. PAGDANGANAN, Lemuel S.
    2612. PAGDILAO, Samuelito Nani P.
    2613. PAGKALINAWAN, Rea Loise G.
    2614. PAGLALA, Norpaisa A.
    2615. PAGTAILAN, Argylle Pizzazz C.
    2616. PAGUE, Meralu E.
    2617. PAGUIA, Ralph Jepherson C.
    2618. PAGUIO, Antonio Rafael U.
    2619. PAGUIO, Hazel V.
    2620. PAGUIO, Kristine Joy B.
    2621. PAGUIRIGAN, Mary Gladys R.
    2622. PAHUTAN, Myron O.
    2623. PAJA, Elywill Mary Z.
    2624. PAJARES, Rafael Greggorre T.
    2625. PAKEO, Randy B.
    2626. PALACPAC, Kathrina Jane H.
    2627. PALANCA, Feligene Rae A.
    2628. PALANGDAO, Lean Andrew L.
    2629. PALATINO, Kerwin Arnold Mawie C.
    2630. PALCONIT, Jose Emmanuel
    2631. PALEJO, Crizzie Mae A.
    2632. PALERMO-ENRIQUEZ, Sophia L.
    2633. PALIGUTAN, Elpidio M.
    2634. PALINES, Rona Francia L.
    2635. PALIS, Lynn Margarita O.
    2636. PALMA, Camille S.
    2637. PALMARES, Kristian Angelo P.
    2638. PALMERA, Ralph S.
    2639. PALOGAN, Rainier Mar G.
    2640. PALOMIQUE, III, Ernesto C.
    2641. PALOMO, Ma. Roscelin H.
    2642. PALOS, Maria Danessa P.
    2643. PAME, Nathaniel A.
    2644. PAMIS, Edgar Allan L.
    2645. PAMITTAN, Regino D.
    2646. PAMPLONA, Joseph William S.
    2647. PANAHON, Blen-pol G.
    2648. PANDAPATAN, Haroun Al-rashid A.
    2649. PANGALANGAN, Raphael Lorenzo A.
    2650. PANGAN, Katrina Bianca V.
    2651. PANGANDAMAN, JR., Palayogan P.
    2652. PANGANIBAN, Chestanica D.
    2653. PANGANIBAN, Jiandra Carmela P.
    2654. PANGANIBAN, Marie-chelle G.
    2655. PANGANIBAN, Rachelle P.
    2656. PANGANIBAN, Rommel Carlo C.
    2657. PANGANIBAN-MABBAGU, Sheena S.
    2658. PANGILINAN, Francis Paolo M.
    2659. PANGILINAN, Lady Anne M.
    2660. PANGILINAN, Milcah F.
    2661. PANGSIW, Bethlehem G.
    2662. PANONCILLO, John Francis M.
    2663. PANOPIO, Aldrin Lincoln P.
    2664. PANOPIO, Leanne
    2665. PANTALEON, Thomas Vincent O.
    2666. PANTAO, Caharodin C.
    2667. PANTOJA-DELA FUENTE, Maria Donna P.
    2668. PANUNCIO, JR., Yulo Vincent B.
    2669. PAPA, Decyrose P.
    2670. PAPANDAYAN-GARANGAN, Sittie Sharmaine M.
    2671. PAPIO, Enrico P.
    2672. PAQUERA, Jocel G.
    2673. PAQUITO, Jesper P.
    2674. PARADO, JR., Casimero C.
    2675. PARADO, JR., Teddy F.
    2676. PARAGGUA, Rachelle
    2677. PARAS-GADDI, Reylyn Grace T.
    2678. PARAWAN, Eula J.
    2679. PARCE, Vienna Olga G.
    2680. PARCON, Frances Grace V.
    2681. PARCON, Rushelle B.
    2682. PAREDES, Osano P.
    2683. PAREDES, Ulyssis S.
    2684. PAREJA, Paola Louise I.
    2685. PARIL, Jeffrey F.
    2686. PARILLA, Dave Edward V.
    2687. PARINAS, Darius R.
    2688. PARIS, Reynaldo G.
    2689. PARONDA, Aubrey Mae M.
    2690. PARREÑAS, JR., Ray D.
    2691. PARREÑO, Mary Frances H.
    2692. PARRUCHO, Bryan Carlo B.
    2693. PARUÑGAO, Paulina Maria B.
    2694. PASAJOL, Karla Kirstin C.
    2695. PASAMBA, Kyna C.
    2696. PASAMBA, Ronald Anthony C.
    2697. PASANA, Maria Cecilia J.
    2698. PASCO, Christopher F.
    2699. PASCUA, Charina P.
    2700. PASCUA, Fatima A.
    2701. PASCUA, Jettner R.
    2702. PASCUA, Priscilla Elizel M.
    2703. PASCUAL, Antoni Pauline P.
    2704. PASCUAL, Karen S.
    2705. PASCUAL, Nichelle S.
    2706. PASCUAL, Prexylee Khrisna L.
    2707. PASCUAL, Robie Charles D.
    2708. PASCUAL-SALVAÑA, Proserfina V.
    2709. PASIGON, Luisito L.
    2710. PASION, Elen D.
    2711. PASTER, Suzette T.
    2712. PASTORES, Cherie May D.
    2713. PATAJO, Maureen Kay E.
    2714. PATATAG, Arnel R.
    2715. PATINGAN, Khenzie Chowaley K.
    2716. PATTAL, Joshua A.
    2717. PATTUGALAN, Nathalie L.
    2718. PATULOT, Jerraemie Nikka C.
    2719. PAULINO, Chairmaine Jacqueline I.
    2720. PAWID, Mivez Anne I.
    2721. PAYOPANIN, Angeline Chiska E.
    2722. PAYTE, Lianne Gaille R.
    2723. PAZ, JR., Roger R.
    2724. PE, II, Albet Salvador R.
    2725. PEDAYO, Aimee E.
    2726. PEDRAJAS, Charity T.
    2727. PEDRANO, Joselito A.
    2728. PEDRO, Mae Jean A.
    2729. PEDROSO, Dianne Jhoy M.
    2730. PELAEZ, Diarlie Pebe B.
    2731. PELARE, Gerard Ace J.
    2732. PELARION, Candice T.
    2733. PELAYO, Cyril Rufino C.
    2734. PELIMER, Jessieco N.
    2735. PELLEJA, Melchor A.
    2736. PELONIO, Amelou D.
    2737. PEPITO, Aileen M.
    2738. PEPITO, Sherry L.
    2739. PERALTA, Adrian F.
    2740. PERALTA, Anna Marie C.
    2741. PEREZ, Carlo L.
    2742. PEREZ, Debbie Rona C.
    2743. PEREZ, Emelda J.
    2744. PEREZ, Glory T.
    2745. PEREZ, Janet Viviana O.
    2746. PEREZ, Jhun T.
    2747. PEREZ, Jo-anne Geneive D.
    2748. PEREZ, Katerina Bianca C.
    2749. PEREZ, Luz J.
    2750. PEREZ, Mary Jane C.
    2751. PEREZ, Rachelle E.
    2752. PEREZ, Raymond P.
    2753. PEREZ, Rizalee J.
    2754. PEREZ, Von Raniel T.
    2755. PERIAS, Christine Joy Marie A.
    2756. PERNATO, Ryan John J.
    2757. PERNES, Hanna Jane B.
    2758. PERNITEZ, Jackelyn Joy B.
    2759. PERRAL, Mark Dale Diamond P.
    2760. PESTAÑO, R’jay L.
    2761. PEÑA, Ma. Carmela Francia T.
    2762. PEÑALVER, Mark T.
    2763. PEÑAMANTE, Laurice Claire C.
    2764. PEÑARROYO, Ma. Anadesylin
    2765. PIA, Alexis F.
    2766. PIAGA, Richard S.
    2767. PIANO, Drazen Borg M.
    2768. PIAS, Thea Marie S.
    2769. PIC-IT, Christian B.
    2770. PIEDRA, Angelo Francisco B.
    2771. PIEZAS, Riva Marie C.
    2772. PIGA, Vincent Q.
    2773. PILA, Josephine P.
    2774. PILAPIL, Francisca P.
    2775. PIMENTEL, May Abigail F.
    2776. PIMPING, Mohamad Fahdel S.
    2777. PINANGAY, Vernard N.
    2778. PINAROC, Virginia B.
    2779. PINEDA, James S.
    2780. PINEDA, Veronica C.
    2781. PINERA, Kristianne D.
    2782. PINGKIAN, Randy B.
    2783. PINO, Rod H.
    2784. PINTO, Karen Cate I.
    2785. PINTO-TADEO, Glaiza Bernadeth P.
    2786. PIZA, Shariz Mae V.
    2787. PIÑERA, Eilleen Abigail L.
    2788. PIÑERO, Daryl N.
    2789. PIÑOL, Bernice Joana L.
    2790. PIÑOL, Efren, Jr. L.
    2791. PLATEROS, Jovanni Christian D.
    2792. PLAZA, Karen Mae Victoria L.
    2793. PLAZA, Paula P.
    2794. PLEÑOS, Noe A.
    2795. PO, Conchita R.
    2796. PO, Leslie Ann L.
    2797. POBLADOR, Carlos Viktor O.
    2798. POBLETE, Mae Jonabelle B.
    2799. POLICARPIO, Jericho Carlo S.
    2800. POLINAR, Lowell James D.
    2801. POLLOSO, Paul Romeo B.
    2802. PONCE, Rachel G.
    2803. PONCE DE LEON, Mary Catherine P.
    2804. PONCE-RAMOS, Jey T.
    2805. PORMANES, Stefhanie Khristine T.
    2806. PORNILLOS, Ansis Reyhan Victor V.
    2807. PORRAS, Bethyl Joy P.
    2808. PORTACION, Deeby C.
    2809. PORTUGUEZ, Zyldjyh P.
    2810. PORTUS-DEMATA, Irma Ruth B.
    2811. POSADAS, Gerard Franco Q.
    2812. PRADO-SINGIAN, Annelei F.
    2813. PRAILE, Edgar, Ii E.
    2814. PRECIA, Joselene Joyce H.
    2815. PRECION, Irish S.
    2816. PRIETO, Maricar DG.
    2817. PROFUGO, Lyra Carissa M.
    2818. PRUDENCIO, Oliver Isabelo D.
    2819. PUACHE, Iana Matea F.
    2820. PUBLICO, Joan Krystal T.
    2821. PUBLICO, Loveli Anne B.
    2822. PUGON-PEREZ, April Dream M.
    2823. PUKIN, Roel V.
    2824. PULIDO, Bernard Vincent C.
    2825. PULUMBARIT, JR., Felizardo N.
    2826. PUNO, Renato Santiago S.
    2827. PUNSALAN, Paolo A.
    2828. PUNZALAN, Janice A.
    2829. PUNZALAN, Mila J.
    2830. PUTI, Mary Elizabeth S.
    2831. PUYALES, Mannylyn J.
    2832. PUYAT, Gil Carlos R.
    2833. PUZON, Anna Benjieline R.
    2834. QUARIO, Gina F.
    2835. QUEIPO, Cherry Ann S.
    2836. QUERUBIN, JR., Leonardo B.
    2837. QUIAMBAO, Laurie Christine P.
    2838. QUIBO, Gavino, Jr. M.
    2839. QUIBOD, Jamica Claire T.
    2840. QUIBOD, Teffanie Marie N.
    2841. QUIBUYEN, Kristelle Joy Ann B.
    2842. QUIDET-GONZALES, Maria Clarisa B.
    2843. QUIJANO, Pfrancez C.
    2844. QUILAB, Miguel Ruperto Rico D.
    2845. QUINAGON, Mc Dobet P.
    2846. QUINDARA, Rio Jean A.
    2847. QUINDARA-LIMOSO, Michelle Geils E.
    2848. QUINLAN, Nea-ann J.
    2849. QUINTO, Angelie C.
    2850. QUINTO, Ivy-ron G.
    2851. QUINTUA, Angeli L.
    2852. QUITCO, Vericson D.
    2853. RAAGAS, Jizza R.
    2854. RABANAL, Paulo N.
    2855. RABANES, Fil Ame G.
    2856. RABARA, Mario Jayson R.
    2857. RACMAN, Shahani M.
    2858. RADA, Wilma Elizabeth A.
    2859. RADAZA, William Joseph Z.
    2860. RADOC, Raiza Alexis D.
    2861. RAGA, Rochelle G.
    2862. RAGAZA, Jan Marcel V.
    2863. RAGAZA, Merceidez Louise S.
    2864. RAGODON, Cherry Jane R.
    2865. RAGRAGIO, Juan Gregorio M.
    2866. RAGSAC, Jerie M.
    2867. RAGSAC, Manny Jay R.
    2868. RAGUDO, Godfrey S.
    2869. RAGUINDIN, Leslie D.
    2870. RAGUINDIN-DE LEOZ, Ivy-lynn M.
    2871. RAMILO, Maria Irenea C.
    2872. RAMIREZ, Carren Jean V.
    2873. RAMIREZ, Ellainevieve D.
    2874. RAMIREZ, John Jeffrey L.
    2875. RAMIREZ, Nereo Julius A.
    2876. RAMIREZ, Raemarie Patricia P.
    2877. RAMIREZ, Robert M.
    2878. RAMONEDA, Love Char B.
    2879. RAMOS, Alexis John S.
    2880. RAMOS, Candace B.
    2881. RAMOS, Eizel Reinelle A.
    2882. RAMOS, Erine Anne C.
    2883. RAMOS, Ferdinand H.
    2884. RAMOS, Jayson A.
    2885. RAMOS, John Paul V.
    2886. RAMOS, John Robin G.
    2887. RAMOS, Jordache L.
    2888. RAMOS, Maria Perpetua Danisa D.
    2889. RAMOS, Marinel M.
    2890. RAMOS, Mark Jefferson C.
    2891. RAMOS, Mary Queen A.
    2892. RAMOS, Rhealeth Krizelle D.
    2893. RAMOS, Shyla Joy C.
    2894. RAMPAS, Charmine A.
    2895. RANCES, Kim L.
    2896. RATILLA, Charro R.
    2897. RAVELO, Ma. Elena Teresa E.
    2898. RAYMUNDO, Michelle G.
    2899. RAYOS DEL SOL, Bettina Jean E.
    2900. RAZON, Candice Zennia R.
    2901. RAZON, Ferdinand G.
    2902. RAÑESES, Roberto Miguel O.
    2903. REAL, Jamie O.
    2904. REALEZA, Ma. Frances Joanna E.
    2905. REBADULLA, Ashley Eve C.
    2906. REBATO, Mar Francis V.
    2907. REBOLLEDO, Derick James S.
    2908. REBULDELA, JR., Francisco B.
    2909. RECENO, Pia Mitzi P.
    2910. RECENTES, Phillip Don G.
    2911. RECIO, Ferdinand A.
    2912. RECTO, Gayle Angeli M.
    2913. RECTO, Mara Kristina O.
    2914. REDONDO, Krizia Marie M.
    2915. REFUERZO, Mirriam Kristine R.
    2916. REFUGIO, Carrie Nizva G.
    2917. REGINALDO, Marrianne G.
    2918. REGIS, Ryan J.
    2919. REGUDO, Marion Thursday A.
    2920. REINTAR, Karl Sigfrey Z.
    2921. REJUSO, Jovelle Carmel E.
    2922. RELATIVO, Joshua Bryan D.
    2923. RELI, Rhea P.
    2924. RELOJO, Kristine Mae D.
    2925. REMO, Gianina Mae C.
    2926. REMO, Vonn Alexis V.
    2927. RENDAL, Ma. Regina N.
    2928. RENGEL, Pimhee Aidel D.
    2929. REOPTA, Laila Aurora A.
    2930. REPASO, Jurdelyn C.
    2931. REPAYO, Jesstony D.
    2932. REPELENTE, Marie Grace P.
    2933. RESMA, Jose Cris G.
    2934. RESPICIO, Russell M.
    2935. RESURRECCION, Efren, Ii R.
    2936. RETA, Marionne Josephas M.
    2937. REVILLA, Ma. Katrina M.
    2938. REVILLOZA, Roderick N.
    2939. REY, JR., Rolando L.
    2940. REYES, Antonio Gabriel L.
    2941. REYES, Carrie-anne Shaleen Carlyle S.
    2942. REYES, Deanne Marie M.
    2943. REYES, Dorina B.
    2944. REYES, Gerardo Gabriel C.
    2945. REYES, Hazel S.
    2946. REYES, Jennifer Arlene J.
    2947. REYES, Jerome Abraham M.
    2948. REYES, Julian Roman J.
    2949. REYES, Kris Mary Francesca R.
    2950. REYES, Marlene C.
    2951. REYES, Nasha Jemimah R.
    2952. REYES, Rica Kathrine F.
    2953. REYES, Ryan I.
    2954. REYES, Shiela Marie G.
    2955. REYES, Vladimir Mikail C.
    2956. REYES, Vladimir Viktor S.
    2957. REYES, II, Lorenzo A.
    2958. REYNES, Antonio Bonifacio C.
    2959. RIBO, JR., Ricardo M.
    2960. RICABLANCA, Sonny Jose M.
    2961. RICAFORT, Francis Dreyfus R.
    2962. RICAFRENTE, Marybeth S.
    2963. RICALDE, Joseph Thomas R.
    2964. RICASIO, Francis Nealle E.
    2965. RICO, Eljun D.
    2966. RICOLCOL, Gabrielle E.
    2967. RIGUER, Mary Grace L.
    2968. RIMA, Sheena T.
    2969. RIO, Leyson Bert L.
    2970. RIOFLORIDO, Lea Angelica R.
    2971. RIOS, JR., Maxencio A.
    2972. RIPARIP, Delmer L.
    2973. RIVAD, Sherine L.
    2974. RIVERA, Charlie N.
    2975. RIVERA, Clariza C.
    2976. RIVERA, Clieford A.
    2977. RIVERA, Joseph Isaiah F.
    2978. RIVERA, Maria Katrina D.
    2979. RIVERA, JR., Jose C.
    2980. RIVERO, Christian E.
    2981. RIVERO, JR., Edmundo B.
    2982. RIZADA, Rochelle Andrea B.
    2983. RIZON, JR., Mario S.
    2984. ROBEL, Norberto, Jr. B.
    2985. ROBLES, Amelie Rose R.
    2986. ROCHA, Lenie Rocel E.
    2987. RODAJE, Aime R.
    2988. RODELA, Edmar D.
    2989. RODRIGO, Karen L.
    2990. RODRIGO, JR., Sotero A.
    2991. RODRIGUEZ, Flevie Joie S.
    2992. RODRIGUEZ, Janine C.
    2993. RODRIGUEZ, Reynold Anthony Marc S.
    2994. RODRIGUEZ, II, Manuel A.
    2995. ROJANO, Queennie Anne F.
    2996. ROJO, Edlice Grace U.
    2997. ROLE, Lovelle Marie B.
    2998. ROLEA, Rammil H.
    2999. ROMAN, Carlo Augustine A.
    3000. ROMAN, Erika Anne F.
    3001. ROMERO, Cecile B.
    3002. ROMEROSA, Rey B.
    3003. RONDON, Dence Cris L.
    3004. ROQUE, Benjamin C.
    3005. ROQUE, Jhoana Candy B.
    3006. ROQUE, Kim Marie M.
    3007. RORALDO, Anne Katrina Marie C.
    3008. ROSAL, Christopher Ryan P.
    3009. ROSAL, Ma. Clarissa M.
    3010. ROSALES, Marie Rose M.
    3011. ROSALES, Niel C.
    3012. ROSANES, Gee B.
    3013. ROSAPAPAN, Josephine Mae R.
    3014. ROSARIO, David Robert Jacinto, Iii K.
    3015. ROSARIO, Kimberly P.
    3016. ROSARIO, Miguel Angelo C.
    3017. ROSETE, Myrie Ellennel I.
    3018. ROSETE-KING, Diana B.
    3019. ROSILLO, Joebuena P.
    3020. ROSOS, Rona Blanca A.
    3021. ROSQUETA, Jifford D.
    3022. ROXAS, Arlyne B.
    3023. ROXAS, Carla Nikasia V.
    3024. ROXAS, Ma. Katrina S.
    3025. ROXAS, Marc Vinzon M.
    3026. ROYANDOYAN-ALLI, Alma C.
    3027. ROÑA, Richie T.
    3028. RUARO, Gabriel Francisco D.
    3029. RUBI, Myra Celeste A.
    3030. RUBIA, Kristine C.
    3031. RUBIANO, Ciriaco L.
    3032. RUDINAS, Samuel Ryan C.
    3033. RUGAY, Ina Carme T.
    3034. RUIZ, Anne Lucille B.
    3035. RUIZ, Erika Joy S.
    3036. RUIZ, Renz Jeffrey A.
    3037. RUMOHR, Glenda R.
    3038. RUNAS, Dalisay D.
    3039. SABAS, Mary Raquel Bernadine D.
    3040. SABATE, Faye Marie M.
    3041. SABIO, Michael B.
    3042. SACARES, Florleane A.
    3043. SACAY, Arl Ruth B.
    3044. SADANG, Mariel Cristina B.
    3045. SADIWA, Ayce Ann J.
    3046. SADIWA, Jesus J.
    3047. SADJAIL, Al-zhain I.
    3048. SADURAL, Jean Aubree Ruby T.
    3049. SAGA, Rahyll S.
    3050. SAGARAL, Rino Geronimo J.
    3051. SAGGA, Liezel Mae S.
    3052. SAGGA, Sumanghal G.
    3053. SAGOLILI, Leofe P.
    3054. SAGSAGO, Marjoree Anne S.
    3055. SAGUCIO, Karen Gina A.
    3056. SAGUID, JR., Benjamin D.
    3057. SAID-UMPAR, Ommukhalthom A.
    3058. SAIDAMEN, Ramayana D.
    3059. SAIPUDIN, Shine Novel L.
    3060. SAKAI, Carlton G.
    3061. SALA, Emily P.
    3062. SALA, Reeny B.
    3063. SALAGUBANG, Sahara C.
    3064. SALAUM, Janale A.
    3065. SALAZAR, Arnold Judd P.
    3066. SALAZAR, Joel Vincent D.
    3067. SALAZAR, Karen Rose D.
    3068. SALAZAR, Peggy Rose F.
    3069. SALCEDO, Edter Paul A.
    3070. SALCEDO, Elcid Jules C.
    3071. SALCEDO, Florian G.
    3072. SALCEDO, Janelle M.
    3073. SALCEDO, Pierre Valfort V.
    3074. SALENDAB, Jason Shaheer H.
    3076. SALES, Alvaro S.
    3077. SALES, Denise Anne V.
    3078. SALES, Steffi C.
    3079. SALIC, Rosaemmah M.
    3080. SALIDAGA, Melfa D.
    3081. SALIH, Mahida P.
    3082. SALILI, Julie Anprilyn R.
    3083. SALINAS, Menchie Ann S.
    3084. SALINO-DARANTINAO, Amabelle J.
    3085. SALISA, Rauda I.
    3086. SALISA, Zehan I.
    3087. SALISE, Hector Christopher Jr. M.
    3088. SALONGA, Ren Alvaro R.
    3089. SALTING, Jessica J.
    3090. SALVADOR, Bianca Camille B.
    3091. SALVADOR, Maria Ilsea W.
    3092. SALVADOR, Milagros B.
    3093. SALVADOR, Ruth Sybil A.
    3094. SALVADOR, Vanessa L.
    3095. SALVADORA, Lovejoy R.
    3096. SALVILLA, Dionne Glenn M.
    3097. SAMIA, Michael James D.
    3098. SAMONTE, David Lawrenz Oliver J.
    3099. SAMPAGA, Genelou L.
    3100. SAMPAGA, Margot S.
    3101. SAMPANG, JR., Anacleto S.
    3102. SAMSON, Donna S.
    3103. SAMSON, Vyron B.
    3104. SAMUELA, Samuel Adams C.
    3105. SAN ANDRES, Ghyslaine D.
    3106. SAN ANDRES, Robert Ian P.
    3107. SAN DIEGO, Dennis D.
    3108. SAN DIEGO-HERIA, Purita Monica Ann A.
    3109. SAN JOSE, Jamille R.
    3110. SAN JOSE, Rica Pauline B.
    3111. SAN LUIS, Tj A.
    3112. SAN PEDRO, Lei Azenith R.
    3113. SAN PEDRO-LADIGNON, Ma. Crisadel P.
    3114. SAN PEDRO-TABIOS, Ruth Kristine A.
    3115. SANCHEZ, Adorees M.
    3116. SANCHEZ, Anthony Jay N.
    3117. SANCHEZ, Don Nico G.
    3118. SANCHEZ, Frances Emily J.
    3119. SANCHEZ, Jennievee May M.
    3120. SANCHEZ, Marvin S.
    3121. SANCHEZ, Marycris A.
    3122. SANCHEZ, Reina Rica C.
    3123. SANCHEZ, Rosalynne L.
    3124. SANCHEZ, Vanessa A.
    3125. SANDOVAL, Angelo R.
    3126. SANDOVAL, Mae Anne O.
    3127. SANDOVAL, Merta Gracilla C.
    3128. SANGALANG, Levie May M.
    3129. SANGAYAB, Shayga K.
    3130. SANGGOYOD, Johaira E.
    3131. SANIDAD, II, Pablo F.
    3132. SANNAD, Jennor P.
    3133. SANO, Erwin O.
    3134. SANSARONA, Dayang Akirah L.
    3135. SANTANDER, Ryan Mark G.
    3136. SANTELLA, Lawrence Mari C.
    3137. SANTIAGO, Cheryl C.
    3138. SANTIAGO, Diego Luis S.
    3139. SANTIAGO, Edward C.
    3140. SANTIAGO, Fay Frances R.
    3141. SANTIAGO, Ferdino Logie S.
    3142. SANTIAGO, Janry Niño T.
    3143. SANTIAGO, Jeraldine B.
    3144. SANTIAGO, Mariole-ana O.
    3145. SANTIAGO, Maybelline M.
    3146. SANTIAGO, Renalyn S.
    3147. SANTIAGO, JR., Rigoberto S.
    3148. SANTONIA, Christian R.
    3149. SANTOS, Alyssa R.
    3150. SANTOS, Anna Marie L.
    3151. SANTOS, Arnold Jansen V.
    3152. SANTOS, Fredric Anthony E.
    3153. SANTOS, Hans Cedric I.
    3154. SANTOS, Jamie Alexandria M.
    3155. SANTOS, Jannah Alline D.
    3156. SANTOS, Jeffrey L.
    3157. SANTOS, Jesse Mari F.
    3158. SANTOS, Joedith B.
    3159. SANTOS, John Boitte C.
    3160. SANTOS, Justine Dawn G.
    3161. SANTOS, Kremlin F.
    3162. SANTOS, Maria Cielito R.
    3163. SANTOS, Maria Edmee L.
    3164. SANTOS, Marian Kris B.
    3165. SANTOS, Marisol R.
    3166. SANTOS, Michael R.
    3167. SANTOS, Rafael Lorenz S.
    3168. SANTOS, Reina Consorcia M.
    3169. SANTOS, Rosario D.
    3170. SANTOS, Roxanne Viel C.
    3171. SANTOS, Ruz Lawrence A.
    3172. SANTOS, Vhodick K.
    3173. SANTOS, Ysabel Kathryn M.
    3174. SANTOS, II, Leandro A.
    3175. SAPIHI-LAYAM, Haifah M.
    3176. SAPORAS, Khey Melanverg L.
    3177. SAQUING, Sherick L.
    3178. SARABIA, Frangelin Dianne L.
    3179. SARACANLAO, Jenna S.
    3180. SARINO, Richard P.
    3181. SARIP, Sittie Aiynna P.
    3182. SARMIENTO, Aylene Marie C.
    3183. SARMIENTO, Eddon Jose A.
    3184. SARMIENTO, Jadee D.
    3185. SARMIENTO, Mary Joan B.
    3186. SARMIENTO, May Anne R.
    3187. SARMIENTO, Sarah Liliana Z.
    3188. SARMIENTO, Sylvia Patricia DC.
    3189. SASI, Ramil S.
    3190. SASING, Luchie G.
    3191. SAULOG, Juan Carlo Raphael P.
    3192. SAVILLA, Jessie F.
    3193. SAYCO, Dennis C.
    3194. SAYSON, Gerlyn Mae C.
    3195. SAYSON, Regine Beth T.
    3196. SEBASTIAN, Jelena F.
    3197. SEBASTIAN, Omar Loui M.
    3198. SEBRIO, Andrew Nico L.
    3199. SEGUNIAL, Queencel S.
    3200. SELMA, Zachary Walter Mari Z.
    3201. SEMBLANTE, Sarah Jane O.
    3202. SEMBRANO, Meighan E.
    3203. SENADO, Nancy P.
    3204. SENARILLOS, Nestoni M.
    3205. SENCIO, Karyna G.
    3206. SEOANE, Reynaldo C.
    3207. SEPACIO, Adonis R.
    3208. SERAPION, Jerry C.
    3209. SERENIÑA, Pauline Mae S.
    3210. SERING, Molly V.
    3211. SERRANO, Janell P.
    3212. SERRANO, Leonid Lee C.
    3213. SERVAÑEZ, Niño Kjell F.
    3214. SERVINO, Brigette N.
    3215. SERVITO, Alma Marie E.
    3216. SESTOSO, Ruth Abigail C.
    3217. SEVIDAL, Genevieve E.
    3218. SEVILA, Angie-leeca E.
    3219. SEVILLA, Janzen Joseph G.
    3220. SEVILLA, Ma. Victoria C.
    3221. SEVILLA, Mary Grace E.
    3223. SEVILLANO, Charlotte Lenore M.
    3224. SEÑADO, Carla Rosario DL.
    3225. SEÑASE-ADRIANO, Claire B.
    3226. SHARMA, Guata Mela D.
    3227. SIA, Arden Kim B.
    3228. SIA, Beatriz Carmelo R.
    3229. SIA, Jon Mari Z.
    3230. SIAN, Shereen Olivia A.
    3231. SIANO, Rex B.
    3232. SIAO, Maria Teresa P.
    3233. SIAPNO, Lorie-mae P.
    3234. SIASON-CONTRERAS, Stephanie H.
    3235. SIBAYAN, Maylyn P.
    3236. SIGUA, Denise Marie L.
    3237. SIGUAN, Ruby Mae B.
    3238. SIGUI-BACANI, Ann Monet M.
    3239. SILUBRICO, Joan H.
    3240. SILVA, Andrea G.
    3241. SILVA, Chris Ian M.
    3242. SILVERIO, Melvie E.
    3243. SIMEON, Armie Lyn G.
    3244. SIMON, Rothea A.
    3245. SINCO, Gabriel P.
    3246. SINET, Heddee Zza T.
    3247. SINGA, JR., Victor B.
    3248. SINGCO, Gezarene A.
    3249. SINGSON, Ericka Raye B.
    3250. SINGSON, Ma. Nina Kleighna G.
    3251. SINGSON-DELA CRUZ, Noelle Joanna M.
    3252. SINON, Francis Xavier S.
    3253. SIOCHI, Paul Vincent P.
    3254. SIOSON, Bernadette S.
    3255. SIOSON, JR., Arturo L.
    3256. SISON, Anne Monica A.
    3257. SISON, Joan Kathleene E.
    3258. SISON, Kristine Dinar C.
    3259. SISON, Margarita T.
    3260. SISON, Uly Solon S.
    3261. SITON, George David D.
    3262. SITON, Marie Fe B.
    3263. SMITH, Karen C.
    3264. SOGUILON, Aaron C.
    3265. SOLA, Yvete Marie I.
    3266. SOLATORIO, Carol Q.
    3267. SOLIDARIOS, Roxanne Joy B.
    3268. SOLIMAN, Miguel Paolo DR.
    3269. SOLIS, Lawrence Emmanuel C.
    3270. SOLLER, Allan Carlo H.
    3271. SOLOMON, Sundae Nathaniel M.
    3272. SOLON, Roger Benjamin D.
    3273. SOLUREN, Jowella D.
    3274. SOMEJO, Theodore Renz D.
    3275. SOMERA, Diana Ann E.
    3276. SONGCAL, Skylar L.
    3277. SONGCUYA, II, Emmanuel Eumir F.
    3278. SONTILLANO, Rey Arthur C.
    3279. SOON, Miles Vincent U.
    3280. SORALLO, Jonna A.
    3281. SORIANO, Andrew T.
    3282. SORIANO, Angelica V.
    3283. SORIANO, Renie Jay A.
    3284. SORIANO, Rosette G.
    3285. SORIANO, JR., Cesar Nickolai F.
    3286. SORNITO, JR., Fermin P.
    3287. SORO, Luningning M.
    3288. SORO, Von Kaiser, Jr. M.
    3289. SORRETA, Lourdes A.
    3290. SORRONDA, Niña May T.
    3291. SOSA, Jay D.
    3292. SOTTO, Glenn F.
    3293. SOTTO, Marinel V.
    3294. SOTTO, Mikhaella Rhonellinne P.
    3295. SOUZA, Maria Franchesca Yvette Y.
    3296. STA. AGUEDA, Casleen G.
    3297. STA. ANA-MOLAER, Cheryl Lynn S.
    3298. STA. MARIA, Iris Jiana A.
    3299. STA. MARIA, Shalako R.
    3300. SUAREZ, Marie Cris V.
    3301. SUAREZ, Sabrina V.
    3302. SUAREZ, Siegfrid S.
    3303. SUBIATE, Mariefe DR.
    3304. SUCGANG, IV, Reynaldo Ross D.
    3305. SUCOR, Princess Roxanne L.
    3306. SUDARIO, Jeffrey D.
    3307. SULIT, Sarah Lou E.
    3308. SUMALABE, Marilaine Agnes Pinky A.
    3309. SUMEDCA, Ringgo G.
    3310. SUMILE, Laila Mae L.
    3311. SUNGA, John Mark F.
    3312. SUNICO, Ma. Corazon S.
    3313. SUPAPO, Rebekah Eunice O.
    3314. SUPERTICIOSO, Mars B.
    3315. SURTIDA, Lara Faye P.
    3316. SUSANA, Gladys T.
    3317. SUZUKI, Arisa Maelle B.
    3318. SUÑGA, Jesselie A.
    3319. SY, Frances Caerina A.
    3320. SYJUCO, Leonard Martin E.
    3321. SYMACO, Catherine Mae
    3322. TA-A, Trisha Angelica B.
    3323. TABAGO, Timothy John D.
    3324. TABANG, Russell Medhurst O.
    3325. TABAYAG, Jehan M.
    3326. TABILIRAN, Elro Mar L.
    3327. TABIOS, Joromy Ace D.
    3328. TABO, Charlemagne S.
    3329. TABOCOLDE-FERNANDEZ, Ellyn Joy E.
    3330. TABUÑAG, Vincent Roel C.
    3331. TACLOB, Israelito V.
    3332. TACUMBA, Ronald F.
    3333. TADENA, Adrian A.
    3334. TADEO, Cris Alvin M.
    3335. TAGALA, Emmi Rose S.
    3336. TAGAMOLILA, Jonathan Eric J.
    3337. TAGLE, Jelyn May D.
    3338. TAGO, Ameroden Daudey B.
    3339. TAGUIBAO, Tirso L.
    3340. TAGULAO, JR., Nestor A.
    3341. TAKAHASHI, Tamae B.
    3342. TALAG, Ava Beatrice Jackqueline C.
    3343. TALATALA, Angelo Carlo T.
    3344. TALINGDAN, II, Juan Karlo G.
    3345. TALIPING, Jettmar A.
    3346. TALLEDO, Donna S.
    3347. TALOMA, Janneliza M.
    3348. TAMANG, Mhara Yvette R.
    3349. TAMANG, Switle Mae A.
    3350. TAMASE, Paolo Emmanuel S.
    3351. TAMAYAO, Vicka Marie B.
    3352. TAMAYO, Carmela R.
    3353. TAMAYO, John Henry N.
    3354. TAMAYO-UBOD, Janice B.
    3355. TAMBA, Apple Dawn D.
    3356. TAMBANILLO, Aileen U.
    3357. TAMBOA, Paul Eric C.
    3358. TAMBOONG, Karah Jane A.
    3359. TAMONDONG, Sonia B.
    3360. TAMSI, Ruby Mary Gold A.
    3361. TAN, Adrian Joseph B.
    3362. TAN, Alyssa Sheena P.
    3363. TAN, Bryan L.
    3364. TAN, Celina Grace L.
    3365. TAN, Charmaine B.
    3366. TAN, Christine Anne Marie L.
    3367. TAN, Dario C.
    3368. TAN, Daryl Ann R.
    3369. TAN, Idony A.
    3370. TAN, Jose Van P.
    3371. TAN, Lawrence Oliver C.
    3372. TAN, Monika S.
    3373. TAN, Renfred C.
    3374. TAN, Ronil A.
    3375. TAN, Sarah Jane U.
    3376. TAN, Sheila T.
    3377. TAN, Steffanieh Gail M.
    3378. TAN, Stephanie C.
    3379. TAN DE GUZMAN, Jechel L.
    3380. TAN-DELOS SANTOS, Joy Lucille C.
    3381. TAN-MONTEMAYOR, Yiyi Khindini Z.
    3382. TANBENGCO, Hency L.
    3383. TANDAAN, Raizza Mae M.
    3384. TANG, Jeanne Madeleine C.
    3385. TANGBAWAN, Archie Carlyle S.
    3386. TANTOCO, Jesse Eleazer D.
    3387. TAPE, Darryl June Luigi P.
    3388. TAPIA, Leonardo O.
    3389. TAPPA, Lilette R.
    3390. TARIMAN, Jessela L.
    3391. TARUC, Marco Paulo E.
    3392. TATO, Achilles Windilen G.
    3393. TAULE, Maria Sol G.
    3394. TAURO, Gian Carlo C.
    3395. TAYAO, Gerard Emmanuel V.
    3396. TAYAO, Irish P.
    3397. TAÑOSO, Hannah Lea N.
    3398. TECIO, Rose Ann A.
    3399. TECSON, Jon Constantin L.
    3400. TEH, Shelan Jane D.
    3401. TEJADA, Marionn Phillbee M.
    3402. TEJANO, Misaellee M.
    3403. TEJANO, Sherina V.
    3404. TEJERERO, Alex C.
    3405. TEJERO, Maria Danice D.
    3406. TELEGATOS, Ivy Audrey D.
    3407. TEMPERANTE, Harry Truman B.
    3408. TEMPLONUEVO, Joy B.
    3409. TENDENILLA, Cristine L.
    3410. TEO, Arvin Randy N.
    3411. TEOXON, Criselda B.
    3412. TERUEL, Gerard Raymund R.
    3413. TESALONA, Jayme Marie D.
    3414. TESORO, Sir Benjamin R.
    3415. TESORO, JR., Rolando C.
    3416. TEVES, Cherie Angeli C.
    3417. TEVES, Jose Emilio M.
    3418. TEVES, Lucille M.
    3419. TIANGCO, Ma. Victoria A.
    3420. TIATCO, Marie France C.
    3421. TIBAY, Ma. Jessica Louise D.
    3422. TIBAYAN, Carlo June C.
    3423. TIBAYAN, Neil Bryan S.
    3424. TIBAYAN, Ralbert John Neil P.
    3425. TIDONG, Christian Bryann G.
    3426. TIGARONITA, Karla Rachelle M.
    3427. TIMBAL, Ma. Cecelia O.
    3428. TINDOC, Michael Noblie A.
    3429. TINEGRA, II, Oscar A.
    3430. TING, Agnes Irene V.
    3431. TING, Erich Josef M.
    3432. TING, Maria Joy A.
    3433. TINGAS, Mi Amor M.
    3434. TINGCHUY, Mariane B.
    3435. TINIO, Jessa Belle Q.
    3436. TIONGSON, Melody P.
    3437. TIRADO, Adrianne O.
    3438. TIROL, Mark Jason S.
    3439. TIU, Andrew Michael O.
    3440. TIU, Francis Joseph P.
    3441. TIU, Kristel Francine L.
    3442. TIU SERRA, Gisela Tea B.
    3443. TOBIAS, Jan Carlo C.
    3444. TOGONON, Leah Bianca S.
    3445. TOHAY, Ada Bonita I.
    3446. TOLCIDAS, Richard P.
    3447. TOLEDO, Juris Angeli S.
    3448. TOLEDO, Maryrose O.
    3449. TOLENTINO, Armon P.
    3450. TOLENTINO, John Joseph S.
    3451. TOLENTINO, Joseph Anthony F.
    3452. TOLENTINO-LANGUISAN, Golda-fiel A.
    3453. TOMAS, Gunther U.
    3454. TOMAS, Joanna Marie L.
    3455. TOMAS, June Rudini L.
    3456. TOMINEZ, Aris Voltaire M.
    3457. TOMONGLAY, Noel F.
    3458. TOMULTO, Leogen V.
    3459. TONGDO, Jonimar G.
    3460. TONGYA-EN, Mabel M.
    3461. TONIO, III, Tito M.
    3462. TORIDA, Rochelle L.
    3463. TORRATO, Leanne Marie L.
    3464. TORRE, Stewart Paul T.
    3465. TORREFIEL, Eric John J.
    3466. TORREFRANCA-NARONA, Valerie Anne B.
    3467. TORRENUEVA, Jay C.
    3468. TORTE, Marianne B.
    3469. TORZAR, Reche T.
    3470. TRAJE, Clarissa M.
    3471. TRAYVILLA, Jude Thomas P.
    3472. TRIA, Orlindo A.
    3473. TRINIDAD, Cindy Eunice M.
    3474. TRINIDAD, Marie Grace R.
    3475. TRIVILEGIO, Enna Fleur C.
    3476. TRIVILEGIO, Vanity Gail C.
    3477. TRONCO-CATILO, Johnna Q.
    3478. TROPICALES, Marie Sybil P.
    3479. TUASON, Kathleen Mae C.
    3480. TUAZON, Brando D.
    3481. TUAZON, Gloridel V.
    3482. TUAZON, Julie Ann M.
    3483. TUAZON, Michael F.
    3484. TUBOG, Maria Antonia P.
    3485. TUBON, Mary Jane J.
    3486. TUGADE, Rigel Kent V.
    3487. TUGADE, Ruby Rosselle L.
    3488. TUKLING, Paulino P.
    3489. TULFO, Jacques B.
    3490. TUMAMBING, Marivi A.
    3491. TUMAMPOS, Armi Rose C.
    3492. TUMANDA, Raia Angelie A.
    3493. TUMANG, John Edward M.
    3494. TUMANGUIL, Joyvi M.
    3495. TUMAYAN, Jordan M.
    3496. TUMBAGA, Junyvil B.
    3497. TUMBAGA-CALAGAN, Violeta E.
    3498. TUMBALI, Juan Paolo B.
    3499. TUMLOS, Regine Marie A.
    3500. TUMOG, Honeypha I.
    3501. TUNGPALAN, Lei S.
    3502. TUPAS-YRIARTE, Merscha
    3503. TUPENG, Claude Mia D.
    3504. TURIANO, Cesna Joyce D.
    3505. TURIANO-DE SILVA, Rosalyn B.
    3506. TURQUEZA, Caridad Grace T.
    3507. TURQUEZA, Fritz Jon N.
    3508. TUSI-TORIO, Marie Joan T.
    3509. TY, John Benedict C.
    3510. TY, Marie Christine M.
    3511. UALAT, Irene Kaye B.
    3512. UGALINO, Katrina R.
    3513. UGAY, Maria Lourdes Belyn D.
    3514. UJANO, Carla Angeline B.
    3515. ULEP, Philip Maurice C.
    3516. ULLALIM-PASIWEN, Phoebe B.
    3517. UMENGAN, Ian Virgil F.
    3518. UMEREZ, Karl Eugene A.
    3519. UMIPIG, Paulyn Ann A.
    3520. UNTALAN, Cyrus DC.
    3521. UNTALAN, Rhea Lina M.
    3522. UNTALAN, II, Eduardo S.
    3523. URBINA, Christian V.
    3524. URBINA-ALBIO, Ruby Rose F.
    3525. URSAL, April Lynn L.
    3526. USMAN, Jehan A.
    3527. UY, Arvy Brian M.
    3528. UY, Dahn Greigor S.
    3529. UY, Eugene Evan Geoffrey E.
    3530. UY, Jonathan P.
    3531. UY, Lawrence Louie G.
    3532. UY, Marie Anne Cyra H.
    3533. UY, Marya Petrina C.
    3534. UY, Nelrose B.
    3535. UY, Olezardo Jose I.
    3536. UY, William, Jr. T.
    3537. UY, JR., Severino P.
    3538. UY-DEBALUCOS, Josianne M.
    3539. UY-MARGAJA, Jurie Anne M.
    3540. UYTICO, Clark Edward R.
    3541. VALBUENA, Charlotte Jennifer V.
    3542. VALDEVIESO, Michael Angelo G.
    3543. VALDEZ, Erika Gabrielle C.
    3544. VALDEZ, Franz Andrew P.
    3545. VALDEZ, Katrina April Mennen A.
    3546. VALDEZ, Lurline Joy M.
    3547. VALDEZ, Maria Elyanna D.
    3548. VALDEZ, Mary Grace T.
    3549. VALDEZ, Mary Kathrine B.
    3550. VALDEZ, Melody Joy H.
    3551. VALENCIA, Erick Anthony J.
    3552. VALENCIA, Jericho D.
    3553. VALENCIA, Lady Anne B.
    3554. VALENCIA, Renee L.
    3555. VALENCIANO, Albert Ranier C.
    3556. VALENTIN, Aprille Mae Kaye R.
    3557. VALENZUELA, Erwin A.
    3558. VALENZUELA, Melvyn Lorenzo D.
    3559. VALENZUELA-ROVERO, Chiara Chezka P.
    3560. VALERA, Carla Angela M.
    3561. VALERIANO-CEA, Lea B.
    3562. VALERIO, Exequiel D.
    3563. VALERIO, Kathleen L.
    3564. VALLE, Eretzisrel B.
    3565. VALLEDOR, Rowell B.
    3566. VALMORES, Paolyn M.
    3567. VARELA, Ma. Hortense Elaiza P.
    3568. VARGAS, Paola Marie B.
    3569. VARGAS, Varellie C.
    3570. VARONA, Kenneth C.
    3571. VARONA, Vincent Enrique
    3572. VASQUEZ, Michelle G.
    3573. VASQUEZ, Paula Anne Marie D.
    3574. VAÑO, Lord Ronald B.
    3575. VECINAL, Annabelle C.
    3576. VEDAD, Noelle Therese G.
    3577. VEDAÑA, Marc Salvador B.
    3578. VEGA, Alex J.
    3579. VEGA, Thea Elyssa C.
    3580. VEGA-ALVES, Kristalyn P.
    3581. VELA, II, Domingo D.
    3582. VELACHA, Laarnie T.
    3583. VELASCO, Charmagne L.
    3584. VELASCO, Janice F.
    3585. VELASCO, Jessica Marcela D.
    3586. VELASCO, Ma. Monina D.
    3587. VELASCO, Norman F.
    3588. VELASCO, Stephany A.
    3589. VELASCO, JR., James Voldemar R.
    3590. VELOSO, Maria Karen E.
    3591. VELOSO, Rem Beryl Y.
    3592. VENCER, Jose Leon C.
    3593. VENCER, Jose Ray G.
    3594. VENENOSO, Amor G.
    3595. VENERACION, Rose Camille C.
    3596. VENTAYEN-BANATE, Ma. Angelica S.
    3597. VENTIGAN, Jo-anne M.
    3598. VENTOLERO, Ed Armand T.
    3599. VENTURA, Divina Joy A.
    3600. VENTURA, Edelyn Criselle S.
    3601. VENTURA, Gerandel S.
    3602. VERA CRUZ, Dolores A.
    3603. VERACRUZ, Leia Clarissa Veronica R.
    3604. VERBO, Voltaire Socrates V.
    3605. VERDEJO, Sheryl G.
    3606. VERGARA, Hywel Jose T.
    3607. VERGARA, Myta Evangeline R.
    3608. VERGARA, Ruperth Laurence A.
    3609. VERGARA, III, Jaime Oscar Napoleon T.
    3610. VERGARA-HUERTA, Czarina Marta AJ.
    3611. VERZOSA, Jerome C.
    3612. VERZOSA, JR., Feliciano A.
    3613. VIACRUSIS, Andres R.
    3614. VIADO, Reeva Shayne P.
    3615. VIBAR, Michael P.
    3616. VICEDO, Maria Vita Esper M.
    3617. VICENTE, Necitas C.
    3618. VICTORIA, Lalaine T.
    3619. VIDA, John Michael Gabriel N.
    3620. VIGILIA, Ray Jacinto V.
    3621. VILLA, Analie I.
    3622. VILLA, Felix Michael U.
    3623. VILLA-AGUSTIN, Hanna Pearl D.
    3624. VILLABETO, Janine D.
    3625. VILLACARLOS, Rigel Kent F.
    3626. VILLACASTIN, Sharmagne P.
    3627. VILLACURA, Jonalyn D.
    3628. VILLADOLID, Veronica G.
    3629. VILLAFAÑA, Chester B.
    3630. VILLAFLOR, Hope J.
    3631. VILLAFUERTE, Angelica M.
    3632. VILLAFUERTE, Dennis C.
    3633. VILLALOBOS-CATAPANG, Kathlyn T.
    3634. VILLAMAYOR, Precious Y.
    3635. VILLAMIL, Guillermo, Jr. A.
    3636. VILLAMIN, Devee Mae O.
    3637. VILLAMIN, Dimple Lhee M.
    3638. VILLAMIN, Kathleen Mae M.
    3639. VILLAMOR, Irish R.
    3640. VILLAMOR, Jiselle Rae A.
    3641. VILLANERA, Jillian B.
    3642. VILLANIA, Paul Nicholas A.
    3643. VILLANOZA, Caryl Jane P.
    3644. VILLANUEVA, Archimedes W.
    3645. VILLANUEVA, Clementine SM.
    3646. VILLANUEVA, Danilo A.
    3647. VILLANUEVA, Genevieve A.
    3648. VILLANUEVA, Heinz Guderian L.
    3649. VILLANUEVA, James Francis S.
    3650. VILLANUEVA, Janinah B.
    3651. VILLANUEVA, Jay Pee M.
    3652. VILLANUEVA, Jenno Antonio G.
    3653. VILLANUEVA, Joyce T.
    3654. VILLANUEVA, Ma. Clarissa Excelsis S.
    3655. VILLANUEVA, Mary Rose C.
    3656. VILLANUEVA, Patricia V.
    3657. VILLANUEVA, Rico L.
    3658. VILLANUEVA, JR., Fausto R.
    3659. VILLANUEVA-APOSTOL, Lesli B.
    3660. VILLANUEVA-SAIDDI, Jhulie Ann L.
    3661. VILLAR, Adelfa Febb Candelaria M.
    3662. VILLAREAL, Paul Leonard A.
    3663. VILLARES, Cheryl Ann S.
    3664. VILLARICO, Dianne Allyn D.
    3665. VILLAROSA, Paul Edgar E.
    3666. VILLARROYA, Vina Marie S.
    3667. VILLARTA, Sheryl Mary N.
    3668. VILLARUBIA, Marc Deus Christian P.
    3669. VILLASIN, Camille J.
    3670. VILLEGAS, Iryshell P.
    3671. VILLENA, Portia Rochelle G.
    3672. VILLO, Viktoria Mary Antonette P.
    3673. VILLONES, Sharon R.
    3674. VILLOTA, Jordan D.
    3675. VILLOTA, Socrates P.
    3676. VILORO, Shem Anthony P.
    3677. VINLUAN, Almeda-sakima P.
    3678. VINLUAN, Peter Glenn M.
    3679. VINLUAN, Veronica A.
    3680. VIRAY, Ronald
    3681. VIRAY, Vannessa Anne M.
    3682. VIRTUDAZO, Angelica S.
    3683. VIRTUDES, Charito S.
    3684. VIRTUDES, Jufrel S.
    3685. VIRTUDEZ, Iris A.
    3686. VIRTUSIO, Queeny L.
    3687. VISDA, Mac Kerwin P.
    3688. VITUG, Rex Napoleon O.
    3689. VIVERO, Jazmine M.
    3690. VOGT, Julie Ann D.
    3691. WACAS, Santiago, Jr. U.
    3692. WACHAYNA, Giovanni K.
    3693. WAGAS, Janice R.
    3694. WAILAN, Rosemarie M.
    3695. WANASEN, Beauregard D.
    3696. WASIN, Eduardo, Junior M.
    3697. WAYET, Johnny D.
    3698. WONG, Hannah C.
    3699. YADAO, Aimee Fortune I.
    3700. YAMBAO, Karen Anne E.
    3701. YAMBAO, Marian Kay M.
    3702. YANEZA, Jeane Benalda Ruth M.
    3703. YANG, Daryl Anne E.
    3704. YANGA, Gino Angelo P.
    3705. YANO, Jean Raiza G.
    3706. YAP, Adrian Nigel H.
    3707. YAP, Demi Lynn B.
    3708. YAP, Jimson G.
    3709. YAP, Mario Raymund O.
    3710. YASAY, Jorge Patrick A.
    3711. YBALLE, Don Anthony T.
    3712. YBAÑEZ, Edelle Beth E.
    3713. YBIO, Marie Chielo H.
    3714. YEBRA, Alloysius R.
    3715. YEE, Oliver Norman P.
    3716. YGAÑA, Angeline C.
    3717. YGNACIO, Marie Angelee V.
    3718. YLANAN, Yedah V.
    3719. YNTIG, Allen D.
    3720. YORO, Naydia Carla A.
    3721. YRAY, Rhea C.
    3722. YSULAN, Aura Bern J.
    3723. YU, Michelle M.
    3724. YU, Regine C.
    3725. YU, Samuel R.
    3726. YU, Trisha Anne C.
    3727. YUAYAN, Rachel L.
    3728. YUMANG-MEDINA, Cyndymhae V.
    3729. YUMANG-PALMA, Ma. Jel Kristine P.
    3730. YUNG, Willard T.
    3731. YUTUC, Sheila C.
    3732. ZABALA, Vincent Sheldon A.
    3733. ZACARIA, Sittie Mariam D.
    3734. ZAIDE, Anna Dominique L.
    3735. ZAMORA, Ruth Anne P.
    3736. ZAMORA, Xavier Henry L.
    3737. ZAMUCO, Golda Lynn C.
    3738. ZAPATA, Alyssa Ana M.
    3739. ZAPATA, Deborah F.
    3740. ZAPATA, Ma. Criselle R.
    3741. ZARAGOZA, Jovencio M.
    3742. ZARASPE, Gerard Michael O.
    3743. ZARATE, Nelson H.
    3744. ZERRUDO, Danna Laura S.
    3745. ZOZOBRADO, Reina Rea Q.
    3746. ZUNIEGA, Allan S.
    3747. ZUÑIGA-GOLO, Eden Louise P.
Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 23, 2016


Please click the link below (in red) to generate the PDF file.



 This humble work is a compilation of review materials the author had used and preserved during his long journey towards becoming a worthy member of the legal profession.
      Profound gratitude specifically goes to the following esteemed authors for their respective work:
  1. Albano, Ed Vincent, Remedial Law Reviewer, 2007 Edition, Rex Printing Co., Inc.
  2. Agpalo, Ruben E., Handbook on Criminal Procedure, 2004 Edition, Rex Printing Co., Inc.
  3. Francisco, Ricardo J., Evidence Rules, Third Edition.
  4. Herrera, Oscar M., Remedial Law, Vol. III-A, 2005 Edition, Rex Printing Co., Inc.(Notes).
  5. Inovejas, Philger Noel, Remedial Law Jurisprudence 2015
  6. Paras, Edgardo L., Rules of Court Annotated, Rex Printing Co., Inc.
  7. Regalado, Florenz D., Remedial Law Compendium, Ninth Printing Edition, Philippine Graphic Arts, Inc.
  8. Reyes, Leonardo P., The People’s Constitutional and Statutory Rights, 2000 Edition, National Book Store.
  9. Riano, Willard B., Civil Procedure (A Restatement for the Bar), 2007 Edition, Rex Printing Co., Inc.
  10. Riano, Willard B., Evidence (A Restatement for the Bar), 2006 Edition, Rex Printing Co., Inc.
  11. Villasis, Christian, Notes and Pointers in Remedial Law 2012-2015
  12. Philippine Association of Law Schools
  13. University of the Philippines Law Center




Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 3, 2016

List of 2015 Bar Exams Passers

Total Number of Bar Finishers: 6,608

Total Number of Bar Passers: 1,731 (26.21%)


1 Rachel Angeli Miranda University Of the Philippines 87.40
2 Athena Plaza University of San Carlos 87.25
3 Jayson Aguilar University of the Philippines 86.75
4 Reginald Arceo Ateneo de Manila University 86.70
5 Mandy Therese Anderson Ateneo de Manila University 86.15
6 Giselle Hernandez University of the Philippines 86.10
7 Daniel Bustamante San Beda College 85.90
8 Jecca Jacildo University of San Carlos 85.85
8 Soraya Laut Xavier University 85.85
8 Jericho Tiu Ateneo de Manila University 85.85
9 Jedd Brian Hernandez University of the Philippines 85.80
10 Ronel Buenaventura Bulacan State University 85.15
10 Lara Carmela Fernando San Beda College 85.15


1. ABAD, Leslie Glenne C
2. ABAD, Rachel Ann Katrina P
3. ABEL, Jhoanna Marie M
4. ABELARDO, Mark Joseph B
5. ABELLA, Sonny Xavier S
6. ABELLANA, Lutche V
7. ABELLON, Mary May A
8. ABIAD, Shirley Ann N
9. ABIERA, Jose Sandino B
10. ABIERA, Rose Anne L
11. ABIOG, Ro Megan Lea B
12. ABOLAIS, Nurhainie S
13. ABREGANA, Dhetty Joy B
14. ABRIL, Donn Ed Martin A
15. ABRUGENA, Ma. Ann Klaudine C
16. ABSIN, Patrick Bryan E
17. ABU, Arik Aaron C
18. ABUBAKAR, III, Ismael G
19. ACASIO, Michael T
20. ACAYLAR, Cattleya B
21. ACEBEDO, Rafael Antonio M
22. ACEDILLA, Salvador V
23. ACORDA, Rosechelan Charity G
24. ACOSTA, Julius Patrick C
25. ADALEM, Jay Paolo C
26. ADAMI, Cherryl S
27. ADAO, Mica Maurinne M
28. ADIA, Iris Jazelle P
30. ADRALES, Judessa Mae D
31. AG-AGWA, Rassel Leah A
32. AGA, Greg Mari M
33. AGADER, Charisse Ann C
34. AGADIER, Ickey Rod T
35. AGANAP, Elizabeth Anne Y
36. AGAS, III, Felicisimo F
37. AGATEP, Christopher Lauren R
38. AGBAYANI, Juan Paolo C
39. AGDAMAG, Joseph Giancarlo C
40. AGOOT, Ryan D
41. AGOR, Ariel L
42. AGSAULIO, Janette I
43. AGUHOB, Rachiene C
44. AGUILAR, Jayson C
45. AGUILERA, Kim Angerie B
46. AGUS, Yehlen C
47. AGUSTIN, Rona Rikka Angel G
48. AIDA, Akemi B
50. ALAGBAN, Aiken G
51. ALARILLA, Francesca Camille L
52. ALBA, Jhony Martin J
53. ALBA, Jonathan S
54. ALBOR, Raphaela G
55. ALCANTARA, Kriseth M
56. ALCANTARA, Raymond P
58. ALDUESO, Hyacinth B
59. ALEJO, Jeffry A
60. ALENTON, III, Gregrio R
61. ALFONSO, Maria Josefina R
62. ALICANDO, Krister Shaun Prinz M
63. ALIGORA, Cecille S
64. ALIM, Mohammad Fyzee P
65. ALIMODIAN, Cherryl B
66. ALIVIO, Hanes Louise M
67. ALIX, Keeshia Alyanna H
68. ALIÑO, Jacqueline Leoncia M
69. ALLAS, Aira Kristina M
70. ALLAS, Lyra Cecille V
71. ALMADRO, Mary Katherine C
72. ALMARIO, Carlo Inocencio F
74. ALOJADO, James Patrick O
75. ALON, Veronica O
76. ALONZO, Fernando B
78. ALVAREZ, Ma. Jessa M
79. ALYASA, Nadjera A
80. AMADOR, Ronald S
81. AMANTILLO, Anne Marie Joy B
82. AMEDA, Kenjie C
83. AMON, Paul Elbert E
84. AMOROSO, Love G
85. AMPONG, Alpha Grace P
86. AMWAO, Glory Pearl D
87. ANASTACIO, Dave Oliver P
88. ANDERSON, Mandy Therese M
89. ANDRES, Robert Joseph M
90. ANG, Jenica S
91. ANG, Marilen R
92. ANGUB, Tani M
93. ANSALAN, Ma. Pamela Aloha C
94. ANTONIO, Mona Liza D
95. ANTONIO, Robinson G
97. ANUNCIO, Rosalyn Ruth S
98. ANZO, JR., Nilo M
99. ANZURES, Jacquelyn Ann Marie G
100. APAD, Rachell C
101. APIGO, Reshel Amor D
102. APODERADO, JR., Ernesto A
103. APOLONIO, Julie Belle A
104. APOSTOL, Danielle D
105. AQUINO, Alexis Ann V
106. AQUINO, Andrei Laurence V
107. AQUINO, Gil Anthony E
108. AQUINO, Shiena Angela DR
109. ARAFAG, Karen B
110. ARANAS, Agnes B
111. ARANETA, Alfrederick C
112. ARBOLADO, Jan Michael V
113. ARBOLADURA, Mary Grace S
114. ARCEGA, Baby Perian R
115. ARCEO, Reginald M
116. ARCILLAS, Rosela N
117. AREJOLA, Ralph Raymond P
118. AREJOLA, JR., Romeo P
119. ARELLANO, Loriejay D
120. ARELLANO, Raysun R
121. ARIETE, Richard A
122. ARIÑAS, JR., Marianito B
123. ARNADO, Sedfrey Jay M
124. ARQUILLO, Buena G
125. ARRIESGADO, Ranier O
126. ARROYO, Laarni Gay C
127. ARTAIZ, Luis Alfonso E
128. ARUGAY, Glory Grace J
129. ASAMA, Jennifer T
130. ASCAÑO, Bon Gerard D
131. ASISTIDO, Andrei T
132. ASLOR, Gilbert P
133. ASORIO, Shiela Mae S
134. ASPILAN, William, Jr. P
135. ASUNCION, Mark Anthony A
136. ASUNCION, Ria Vanessa DS
137. ASUNCION, JR., Dionicio R
138. ATIBAGOS, II, Jose A
139. ATIENZA, Elaine A
140. ATILLO, Maria Olivia Ana R
141. ATRILLANO, Ervin Shaun S
142. AUSTRIA, Jessa F
143. AVELLANO, Jenny Rose G
144. AWATIN, Meliza Ann R
145. AYAP, Manuel C
146. AZARCON, Jerome T
147. AZIS, Jauhari C
148. AZURIN, Paula Beatriz L
149. BABATE, Gerard D
150. BABOR, Mark Christopher A
151. BACANI, Bianca Mae Y
152. BACANI, Luigi A
153. BACULI, Adolf Kissenger P
154. BACULO, Tyron Kim D
155. BADILLO, JR., IV, Avelino C
156. BADUA, Kristine F
157. BADUA, Ma. Jhunelle A
158. BAER, Rizsa Rose S
159. BAGALACSA, Omar V
160. BAGGAY, Joefer B
161. BAGUL, Sharmila R
162. BAKER, Kathlyn A
163. BALABA, Jean Charity C
164. BALADBAD, Mayer B
165. BALAGOT, Jessie C
166. BALAGTAS, Carl Edison M
167. BALAGTAS, Nest Deo L
168. BALAHADIA, Arrabelle Anne Carlene E
169. BALAIS, Ryan E
170. BALARES, Her Lynn F
171. BALAUAG, Kim L
172. BALBERAN, Germarie I
173. BALBOA, Donna Ann T
174. BALBON, Cretchen B
175. BALBUENA, Julius Ceasar M
176. BALDONADO, Kathy Florence M
177. BALDONADO, Nelson Kevin G
178. BALDUEZA, Ma. Luz Concepcion M
179. BALINGIT, Ana Ria G
180. BALINGIT, Jessica Marie S
181. BALITE, Paul Heherson M
182. BALJON, Al Whilan A
183. BALLEDO, Brando T
184. BALLESTA, Ma. Norma S
185. BALLESTEROS, Chelsea Joyce C
186. BALMEDIANO, JR., Jimmy N
187. BALTAZAR, Kimberly C
188. BALUGO, Percival M
189. BALUYUT, Maria Corazon O
190. BANAKEN, Jula A
191. BANASEN, JR., Robert V
192. BANATAO, April Rose Y
193. BANGANAN, Kristen Gay M
194. BANIQUED, Astrid Arielle I
195. BANIQUED, Janet D
196. BANTIGUE, Mark Aldrin Josel D
197. BANTUG, Maria Teresa Margarita Beatriz D
198. BANZON, Kris Marian D
199. BARATETA, Franco David B
200. BARCENA, Hanna H
201. BARCENA, Mike Joseph V
202. BARCENAS, Karl Rainier R
203. BARILLO, Frederick R
204. BARO, Gerald Dick B
205. BARONA, Hera Aiza Marie A
206. BARRAMEDA, Jener B
207. BARREDA, Marie Ronette Salve E
208. BARREDO, Edward B
209. BARRETTO, Eloisa R
210. BARRETTO, Miguel Angelo T
211. BARRIDO, Noliver F
212. BARRON, Anna Lea A
213. BARROZO, Shiela Joanne T
214. BARSAGA, Delbert John Z
215. BAS, Marc Arthur I
216. BASA, Heaven Leigh P
217. BASAN, Emelita C
218. BASCARA, Liselle Angela I
219. BASCO, Lisa C
220. BASUNGIT, Antonio, Jr. L
221. BATAC, Catherine L
222. BATICADOS, Paul Ivan R
223. BATONGHINOG, JR., Minrado DG
224. BATULA, Vanessa D
225. BAUTISTA, Bjorn Jorrell A
226. BAUTISTA, Cecille Catherine A
227. BAUTISTA, Justa Aurea G
228. BAUTISTA, Khersien Y
229. BAUTISTA, Marian Wilma H
230. BAUTISTA, Rodmel L
231. BAUTISTA, Sherlyn Lourdes T
232. BAUTISTA, Sid Angelo M
233. BAY-AN, Jayran Lowen D
234. BAYA, Hanie Lou A
235. BAYALAS, Brendale S
236. BAYON, Paula Bianca C
237. BAÑEZ, Laarni E
238. BEBELONE, Diana Mae R
239. BEBLANIAS-PILI, Retchie B
240. BECINA, Garret Neil A
241. BEDRIO, Julie Ann A
242. BEJER, Jomarie Christie G
243. BELARMINO, II, Jose Amelito S
244. BELDEROL, John Alexander S
245. BELDUA, Kenneth Vincent P
246. BELEN-GARRO, Liddy Jane C
247. BELLEN, Erwin B
248. BELLINGAN, Gracelyn E
249. BELTRAN, Rochezka Bianca R
250. BENITEZ, Paolo M
251. BERGANTIN, Kenneth Yves C
252. BERMAS, Joanalen G
253. BERMUDEZ, Dominic O
254. BERMUDO, Johanna Marie B
255. BERNARDO, John Michael A
256. BERNARDO, Paolo Miguel Q
257. BEROS, Madelyn C
258. BEÑAS, Frediswenda B
259. BIAG, Luigi L
260. BIALA, Dan Paul C
261. BIAS, Marcos E
262. BIAY, Kristian A
263. BIDES, Reden B
264. BIGAY, Daryl Jacob F
265. BINALLA, Jeremy Kay D
266. BISCAYDA, Kristel Joy P
267. BISNAR, Ryan Ric B
268. BITON, Johnbee R
269. BLANCO, Paul Danico C
270. BOAGING, Anthonette A
271. BODIONGAN, Glein Mark L
272. BOHOL, Dennis S
273. BOLA, Lorelei P
274. BOLANTE, Jose Roberto D
275. BONAOBRA, Ma. Evanor B
276. BONAVENTE, Arianne Q
277. BONGALON, Hendrix C
278. BONIFACIO, JR., Romeo E
279. BONTO, Renato R
280. BONTUYAN, Alvin G
281. BORBE, Magdalena A
282. BORILE, Ronald S
283. BORINAGA, Joey M
284. BORLASA, Renato B
285. BORRES, Abegail Mari F
286. BOÑAGA, Juliet V
287. BRAGADO, Cassandra I
288. BRIEVA, Rickee Gerald D
289. BRIONES, Keith Francis R
290. BRIONES, Lorenzo Jared J
291. BRISTOL, Murli Manohar Das E
292. BUAN, Noelle Jenina Francesca E
293. BUAN, Princess L
294. BUCA, Julie Merriam L
295. BUCCAT, JR., Honorio G
296. BUELA, Krisha Marie T
300. BUENO, Karen Ann S
301. BUESER, Jan-michael C
302. BUGAYONG, Monica G
303. BULAC, Katherine Grace C
304. BUNA CRUZ, Greta M
305. BUSAL, Hail O
306. BUSTAMANTE, Darniel R
307. BUSTONERA, Maria Carmela D
308. BUSWAY, Julius A
309. BUTED, Mabel L
310. CABADING, Maria Corazon V
311. CABALLERO, Cliford C
312. CABALLERO, Krisna Samantha T
313. CABALZA-NAPOLES, Maria Annely I
314. CABANLAS, Melanie Mae C
315. CABARRUBIAS, Donna Marie P
316. CABATU, Ricky Boy V
317. CABBUAG, Karla A
318. CABERGAS, Mary Anne S
319. CABILE, Kiarra Nastazsa Adrienne A
320. CABILI, Karl T
321. CABRAL, David Rence R
322. CABRALES, Diana May V
323. CABUNOC, Pearl Joan M
324. CAC, Corina P
325. CADAG, Maria Donnabelle M
326. CADIATAN, Jonah Liz A
327. CADIZ, Jethro Jed S
328. CADWISING, Rachanne C
329. CAGUIOA, Leon Maria Angel P
330. CAGURANGAN, JR., Tranquilino R
331. CAHILOG, Kent Joel T
332. CAINDAY, Jennebeth Kae B
333. CALALO, Mara Erna Azalea F
334. CALDINO, Hannah V
335. CALITIS, Niño Jandy P
336. CALIZO, Ruby Ann D
337. CALLUENG, Rene A
338. CALMARES, Ian J
339. CALO, Ma. Lorena L
340. CALUGAS, Ronelo C
341. CAMACHO, Christopher Renier C
342. CAMAT, Rocel Ann Dolores M
343. CAMBRI, Romar B
344. CAMINADE, Richard Rey T
345. CAMINO, Marie Louise N
346. CAMIÑA, Gerard Martin S
347. CAMPILLA, Adrian B
348. CAMPOS, Martin Rosendo L
349. CANCIO, James Francis M
350. CANDAO, Fahd A
351. CANONCE, Katrina B
352. CAPILI, Amorie Carla B
353. CAPINPIN, Jaymie D
354. CAPOCYAN, Genesis D
355. CAPON, Donn Serpico C
356. CAPUCHINO, II, Hermenegildo C
357. CAPUNO, Raegan L
358. CAPUYAN, Kevin Kaizer Dave K
359. CARAIG, Jane Donna C
360. CARANDANG, Airene P
361. CARANDANG, Nina Herschelica L
362. CARBONELL, Zhanika Marie O
363. CARDINES, Alvin P
364. CARIAGA, JR., Constancio P
365. CARILLO, Palma Clarissa V
366. CARINGAL, Kristia Lorraine V
367. CARIÑO, Charlotte M
368. CARIÑO, Marianne M
369. CARPENTERO, William G
370. CARRILLO, JR., Crisanto C
371. CARROLLO, JR., Clemente L
372. CARUÑGAY, Joy Samantha G
373. CASABAR, Ryan Armand L
374. CASADOR, Althea Mae P
375. CASIAO, Nanet S
376. CASIHAN, Ma. Isabelita R
377. CASIMPAN, Cybele Arianne Lee J
378. CASTILLO, Leah Francesca M
379. CASTILLO, Sherryl Joy N
380. CASTILLONES, Pacifico Ismael M
381. CASTRO, Jennifer Marie G
382. CATACUTAN, Darlene J
383. CATALUÑA, Lesly Ann J
384. CATANI, Ritchel S
385. CATAPANG, Kaye Danica H
386. CATARMAN, Piña Luz P
387. CATIPON, Ivy O
388. CAÑADA, Kaitlin Mary Cor L
389. CEMINE, Vivienne Jonnah R
390. CENGCA, Ma. Kristine Gay M
391. CEPIDA, Ericson T
392. CERO, Iris Fatima V
393. CEZAR, Karen Bianca Angeli S
394. CEZAR, Mark Jacinto D
395. CEÑIDOZA, Kriszanne Cerrise P
396. CHAN, Christian Philip B
397. CHAN, Hannah Isabella P
398. CHAN, Hobart H
399. CHAN, Jan Franz Norbert Joselito A
400. CHAN, Luigine Christi C
401. CHATTO, Ruby Jean G
402. CHAVEZ, Abigael R
403. CHAVEZ, Charlemagne Rae P
404. CHAVEZ, Cheysson A
405. CHAVEZ, Jino Karlo M
406. CHAVEZ, Marian Camille E
407. CHING, Maria Adela C
408. CHIONG, Darwin V
409. CHUA, Angelica A
410. CHUA, Gladys Kaye L
411. CHUA, James Michael T
412. CHUA, Jantzen Joe C
413. CHUA, Jeremy Ryan C
414. CHUA, Kara Mae Aurora R
415. CIMATU, Maria Faiva S
416. CIRUELOS, Mary Grace B
417. CIRUNAY, Sonny Paul R
418. CLAREZA, Kathleen May O
419. CLEOFAS, Benz G
420. CO, Anna Margarita K
421. CO, Jessica Anne G
422. CO, Jon Eric G
423. COBANKIAT, Camille N
424. COBARRUBIAS, Maria Graciela C
425. COKALIONG, Chesna Y
426. COLIS, Roselette Ann A
427. COLLADO, JR., Manolyn A
428. COLLE, Kristine Keith N
429. COMACASAR, Farhanisah D
430. COMAGUL, Aliah M
431. COMENDADOR, Jona Mae C
432. COMIA, Antonette T
433. COMIA, Trixy L
434. CONALES, Zulikha Marie S
435. CONCEPCION, Alain Kris C
436. CONCEPCION, Halie C
437. CONCEPCION, Warren B
438. CONCORDIA, Carlo Miguel SP
439. CONEJOS, Rafael Lorenzo G
440. CONSIGNADO, Mailyn P
441. CONTRERAS, Florence N
442. CORALES, Francis Paul T
443. CORDOVA, William B
444. CORRALES, Marlon M
445. CORREA, Ma. Criselda B
446. CORRIGE, Rency Y
447. COSICO, Michiko V
448. CRON, Clarizza D
449. CRUZ, Christine Bernadette U
450. CRUZ, Giancarlo A
451. CRUZ, Novy Marie S
452. CRUZ, Rheena Lyn L
453. CRUZ, Roxanne Marie Q
454. CRUZ, Tzeitel Christine DG
455. CRUZ, Xinia Carmela B
456. CRUZ, JR., Romeo B
457. CUA, Michael Pio V
458. CUANAN, Arjay Louie Eu B
459. CUDIA, Jane Victoria A
460. CUERDO, Winnie Anne S
461. CUEVAS, Julius N
462. CUEVAS, Leslie Joy L
463. CUISON, Melvin John Q
464. CUNANAN, Marco Polo E
465. CUPIN, Rosemarie Louise C
466. DABALOS, Kristina P
467. DACANAY, Ma. Cecilia Y
468. DACAY, Ernie Jerome Q
469. DAGBAY, Stacykitz J
470. DAING, Paul Patrick D
471. DALANAO, Gretchen Joy G
472. DANAO, Vic Darryl A
473. DANTES, Edmond V
474. DAPAING, Emman Rey F
475. DATU, Sabrina C
477. DAVID, Dennice Erica L
478. DAVID, Mike Gerald C
479. DAYAG, Richard G
480. DAYTO, Mary Grace S
481. DE ALBAN, Marlon Joseph M
482. DE BORJA, Esperanza Angela A
483. DE CASTRO, April P
484. DE CASTRO, Ian Julius S
485. DE CHAVEZ, Karren Mae C
486. DE DIOS, Kennex P
487. DE GUZMAN, Christopher Tom C
488. DE GUZMAN, Daisy Joy R
489. DE GUZMAN, Errica Marie N
490. DE GUZMAN, Jarren Neil D
491. DE GUZMAN, Kathleen Kay A
492. DE GUZMAN, Maria Corazon Y
493. DE GUZMAN, Sabrina Louise M
494. DE GUZMAN, Sheila O
495. DE JESUS, Charisma Michelle L
496. DE JESUS, Ramil F
497. DE LA CRUZ, Fatima Nica Q
498. DE LA CRUZ, Rhodalyn P
499. DE LA FUENTE, Dyan Angela A
500. DE LA PAZ, Anna Cristina B
501. DE LA SERNA, Christian Borg J
502. DE LEON, Diwata DR
503. DE LEON, Jenny Marie T
504. DE LOS SANTOS, Luciliza L
505. DE LOS SANTOS, Marifel B
506. DE LOS SANTOS, Robnette Mae C
507. DE LUMEN, Ramonchito L
508. DE MATIAS, Evelyn B
509. DE MESA, Jean Phebie G
510. DE VEYRA, Vanessa Gaye A
511. DE VILLA, Cipriana D
512. DEHAYCO, Don A
513. DEL CASTILLO, David I
514. DEL ROSARIO, Aaron John D
515. DEL ROSARIO, Elijah B
516. DEL ROSARIO, JR., Rodolfo B
517. DELA CRUZ, Flordeliza A
518. DELA CRUZ, Karen F
519. DELA CRUZ, Kevin Albert T
520. DELA CRUZ, Ma. Gesileth C
522. DELA MERCED, Blenda Czarinne R
523. DELA MERCED, Nicu L
524. DELAMBACA, Francis Erick D
525. DELDIO, Manuel F
526. DELGADO, Alvin G
527. DELLOSA, Mark Kevin U
528. DENTE, Kim D
529. DEOCAMPO, Randeil D
530. DERIJE, John Frederick E
531. DESCALLAR, Hannah Percival B
532. DESOACIDO, James Mareck M
533. DESTURA, Kristina Bianca D
534. DEVESA, Van Lee Roy C
535. DIAO, Jan Claude A
536. DIAZ, Carlo Artemus V
537. DIAZ, Ragesan M
538. DIAZ, Veronica B
539. DICDICAN, Oliver Y
540. DIEZ, Samantha C
542. DIMAANO, Mae Anne R
543. DIMALANTA, Angelica Rose C
544. DIMAPILIS, Jomarc Philip E
545. DIMAYUGA, Leoncia Ma. Cecilia M
546. DIONIO, Jose Mari Angelo A
547. DIRON, Al Hamid P
548. DISAMBURUN, Moh’d Hussein Jaded A
549. DISONGLO, Rose Lyn A
550. DITCHON, Irelan B
551. DIVINO, Lauren Gail D
552. DIZON, Raphael James F
553. DIZON-CATBAGAN, Ma. Liberty Rio P
554. DOMADALUG, Moumina Sheryne L
555. DOMINGO, Julius Caesar G
556. DOMINGO, Maria Czabrina O
557. DOMINGO, Rodalyn P
558. DOMINGUITA, Aladdin P
559. DORADO, Cheryl T
560. DUKA, Gian Jaime A
561. DULAY, Armand Louis T
562. DULDULAO, Christian T
563. DUMA, Stephen John M
564. DUMALANTA, Kristine Draei V
565. DUMASI, Charles A
566. DUP-ET, Carol S
567. DUREZA, Christy Theresa Bernadette A
568. DY, Dranreb U
569. DY, Erik Lawrence S
570. DY, Zara Marie
571. DYOCO, Maria Gracia D
572. ECAL, Erly Z
573. ECO, Christian G
574. EDIZA-ROSALES, Clairol Sienna Marie M
575. EDOS, Jumie Ann O
576. ELAURIA, Erla Rhysa R
577. ELNAS, Karen T
578. EMPAYNADO, Karen G
579. ENAJE, Albert L
580. ENDRINAL, Alvin P
581. ENRILE, April V
582. ENRIQUEZ, Ra Solomon A
583. ERACHO, Marian Kamille F
584. ERFE, Nazi Jester U
585. ERIGA, Ronald Fredric H
586. ESCABARTE, Regant C
587. ESCALA, JR., Vicente V
588. ESCANER, Michael Joseph L
589. ESCOBER, Paulo A
590. ESCUDERO, Allen Michael B
591. ESCUREL, Albert John L
592. ESGUERRA, Dondie Q
593. ESPARAGOZA, Michael Jorge T
594. ESPAÑOLA, JR., Leopoldo D
595. ESPINA-ABELLANA, Christina Angeli C
596. ESPINOSA, Aida Raissa T
597. ESPIRITU, Enrico A
598. ESPIRITU, France Leonor R
599. ESPIRITU, Marie Dainne V
600. ESPIRITU, Peter Guan S
601. ESPLANA, Maria Carla A
602. ESPLANADA-LLANES, Maria Czarina T
603. ESTANIEL, Leo Antoni C
604. ESTANISLAO, William George L
605. ESTEBAN, Fidel L
606. ESTELEYDES, James Bryan V
607. ESTEVEZ, Lara Victoria O
608. ESTILLES, JR., Ronald G
609. ESTIPONA, Joshua Psalm R
610. ESTRADA, Lovely C
611. ESTRADA, Nestonel F
613. ESTRELLA, Jeziel H
614. ESTREMADURA, Joan Janneth M
615. EUGENIO, Bernadette A
616. EUSTAQUIO, Jesse Neil C
617. EXCHAURE, Iris Katrine M
618. FABIAN, Jessielle Ann C
619. FAISAL, Abdul Nassif M
620. FAJARDO, Renee Mark Q
621. FAJARDO, Vincent James V
622. FANGAYEN, Visitacion S
623. FANTILANAN, Chary Lou R
624. FELICIANO, Ma. Priscilla Olivia C
625. FELICIANO, Redentor A
626. FERANDO, Arlene B
627. FERMIN, III, Jann Victor D
628. FERNANDEZ, Jessa Mariz R
629. FERNANDEZ, Maximillian King Z
630. FERNANDEZ, Milagros Katarina A
631. FERNANDEZ, Myra May R
632. FERNANDO, Eunika Raiza V
633. FERNANDO, Jemima B
634. FERNANDO, Lara Carmela G
635. FERNANDO, Mervin Jay R
636. FERRER, Arianne Dominique T
637. FERRER, Euvic M
638. FERRER, Jeanne Carla T
639. FERRER, John Vincent S
640. FERRER, Josephine L
641. FILIPINO, Arturo C
642. FIRMALO, Rebecca M
643. FLORANDA, Geraiza Joy M
644. FLORENDO, Stephanie S
645. FLORES, Donna Marie C
646. FLORETE, Mary Christine Salome C
648. FOOKSON, Clement Bryce B
649. FORMALEJO, Wilfried P
650. FORTUNO, Marienell G
651. FRANCISCO, Caesar Jose F
652. FRANCISCO, Francis G
653. FRANCISCO, Ma. Lani Laurette P
654. FRANCISCO, Marie Denise R
655. FRIAS, Kristina Paola P
656. FUELLAS, Vincent Raymond G
657. FUGGAN, Mariah-janina M
658. FULGENCIO, Alex R
659. GABALES, Gemco C
660. GABAT, Elvis B
661. GACAYAN, Joseph S
662. GALAMGAM, Ariel C
663. GALANTO, Diric V
664. GALAPATE, Erika Krizia M
665. GALLARDO, Enrique A
666. GALLEGO, Arthur Gabriel L
667. GALLEGO, Rajane R
668. GALLEON, Darcee Lois B
669. GALON, Jeric Angelo B
670. GALURA, Ivan Mark C
671. GALVEZ, Genaro N
672. GALVEZ, Kenneth Beneri A
673. GAMBET, Elynur H
674. GAMMAD, Vivien Gay T
675. GAN, Jorella P
676. GAN, Ruby Charmaine U
677. GANAN, Ramon Christopher
678. GANTUANGCO, Gilianne Kathryn L
679. GAPUZ, Golda Julia S
680. GARAY, Florentine T
681. GARAY, Franz Liz R
682. GARCES, Reena Joy G
683. GARCIA, Anne Loraine C
684. GARCIA, Hanna Keila H
685. GARCIA, Jenric Y
686. GARCIA, Karmela Trisha P
687. GARCIA, Kenneth C
688. GARCIA, Maria Jessica Erlinda Angela M
689. GARCIA, Nikki A
690. GARCIA, Patricia Anne E
691. GARONG, Daisy Mae P
692. GARRIDO, Mark Isaak S
693. GASPAR, Maria Paula D
694. GASTARDO, Emildan M
695. GATCHALIAN, Bernard Jonathan L
696. GATDULA, Ann Kathleen C
697. GAUD, Ma. Charisse E
698. GAYAS, Issa G
700. GENCIANEO, Ian Dj D
701. GENERAL, Carol Anne A
702. GENOTA, Mell Anthony L
703. GEONANGA, Ian Michel G
704. GERALDEZ, JR., Norberto P
705. GERODIAS, Beverly Flair G
706. GERONA, Allen Jeil L
707. GERONG, Dael Churchill T
708. GERSALIA, Lawrence Earl Roy A
709. GILBUENA, Darlene D
710. GIPULLA, Leigh Angeli C
711. GIRAO, Christia Sheine E
712. GIVERO, Katrina Kris Gabrielle S
713. GLINDO, Aggy Christine F
714. GLORIA, Carlo Cris V
715. GLORIA, Nadine Alessandra S
716. GO, Jason Edward G
717. GO, Kristine S
718. GOGO, Forcrissa S
719. GOGO, Lee Arvin D
720. GOINGO, Francis Josef T
721. GOJUNCO, Trina Donabelle R
722. GOMEZ, Rameses DT
723. GONZAGA, Leonette Marie L
724. GONZALES, Abbygaile T
725. GONZALES, Aizza L
726. GONZALES, Ariel D
727. GONZALES, Athanasia Zoe A
728. GONZALES, Cler Thea C
729. GONZALES, Jose Ma. Ronaldo D
730. GONZALES, Rionald J
731. GONZALGO, Azenith P
732. GONZALODO, Arnold M
733. GOPICO, III, Aventino S
734. GOZUN, Robicka Mae C
735. GOÑO, Cielo Marjorie A
736. GRAFILO, Sarah Jeanne H
737. GRANADILLOS, Dennis L
738. GRANADO, Lorelee Margaret T
739. GRANTOZA, Charles Joseph L
740. GRANTOZA, Jerilee H
741. GRATELA, Alexxis Monique O
742. GREGORIO, Alvin Clyde O
743. GREGORIO, Barbie Jan V
744. GREGORIO, Emmanuelle Hendrix C
745. GUANGKO, Keisha Trina M
746. GUANSING, Hazel Ritz D
747. GUARINO, Maria Victoria G
748. GUARINO, Michell B
749. GUIFAYA, Florence Kathleen L
750. GUILLEN, Maria Lourdes P
751. GUILLERMO, Marvic Vonn B
752. GUIMBARDA, JR., Rodolfo M
753. GUINTO, Aleli R
754. GUMABAO, Reiland G
755. GUMPAL, Angeli Anne L
756. GURO, JR., Manggay G
757. GUTIERREZ, Katrina Francesca Martha G
758. HABANA, Janeth G
759. HADAP, Nancy R
760. HADJIUSMAN, Jamalodin L
761. HAGAD, Imelda Maira H
762. HALOS, Aeron Aldrich B
763. HATOL, Martin Michael U
764. HAUTEA, Maria Carmela D
765. HERNANDEZ, Divina Gracia A
766. HERNANDEZ, Gertrude Feliz A
767. HERNANDEZ, Giselle P
768. HERNANDEZ, Jedd Brian R
769. HERNANDEZ, Jovelyn R
770. HERNANDEZ, Kym Leiner C
771. HERNANDEZ, Richard A
773. HERRERA, Karla Margarita L
774. HERRERA, III, Ernesto C
775. HILAO, Denise C
776. HIPOLITO, Egm Anmar F
777. HIPOLITO, Kathleen Kirby P
778. HIÑOLA, Vincent P
779. HONGCO, Junnie Vee D
780. HORMILLOSA, Hazel Faith J
781. HUI, Aldrich Ransleigh M
782. IBARRA-SAGAY, Ann Cristine S
783. IBAÑEZ, John Eddu V
784. IBERA, Gerald T
785. IGNACIO, Gabriel Lorenzo L
786. IJIN, Mohammad Ijin E
787. ILAGAN, Kerstin Kaye L
788. ILAGAN, Maria Charis Kay S
789. ILAGAN, Robee Marie M
790. ILAO, JR., Moreno M
791. ILLESCAS, Noel Kris E
792. IMBAT, Oswald P
793. INDINO, Ofelia M
794. INOT, Roneil L
795. INTON, Ferdinand P
796. ISRAEL, Roxan Gracielle D
797. ITUTUD, Judeus B
798. JACILDO, Jecca B
799. JADAP, Daughnilen S
800. JAMILA, Ricci A
801. JAMONER, Paul James T
802. JAMORA, Norman Jay F
803. JANOLO, Celine-maria B
804. JARO, Jan-michael P
805. JAVELOSA, III, Narciso F
806. JAVELOSA, III, Ranulfo J
807. JAVIER, Gemma Andrea C
808. JAVIER, Mary Grace L
809. JAVIER, Ryan Joseph N
810. JHOCSON, Anna Patricia T
811. JIMENEZ, Jason S
812. JOEL, Alvin Divino R
813. JOLITO, Joenifer S
814. JOSE, JR., Andres S
815. JOSOL, John Daryl D
816. JOVEN, Eric Samuel P
817. JUAN, II, Virginio C
818. JULIAN, Nicole Alora G
819. JUMAMIL, Devona H
820. JUNCO, Michelle P
821. JUNTILLA, Edryne Jeth F
822. JUSAY, Maria Christina M
823. KADIL, Kal Kausar S
824. KAGAOAN, Anna Maria D
825. KAHULUGAN, Auda Bea P
826. KALAW, Katrina L
827. KAPAWEN, Aubrey Macnee A
828. KAPUNAN, Ceasario Rex P
829. KARIM, Sittie Nadia M
830. KASILAG-SANCHEZ, Lucrecia Cecilia C
831. KHO, Rhacq B
832. KING, Charlotte Y
833. KING, Clarizel L
834. KING, Kathleen Anne S
835. KING, Keith Elbert C
836. KING, Maximilian P
837. KINTANAR, Paula Carissa V
838. KREBS, Kyle Malachy S
839. LABAJANAN, Michelle C
840. LABISIG, Hansard G
841. LABRO, Jerueh L
842. LABTIC, Clint Octavius E
843. LABUGUEN, Peter Jhon O
844. LACABA, Harold B
845. LACAS, Jose Mari Carlo D
846. LACAS, JR., Pascual A
847. LACSINA, Conrad Smith C
848. LADESMA, Gean Yvish R
849. LADINES, Giovanni Christian D
850. LADOT, Delight B
851. LADRINGAN, Maranatha Praise D
852. LAGASON, Paula Grace C
853. LAGMAN, Kathleen Halley M
854. LAGOS, Marita P
855. LAGROSAS, Sheryl Christine V
857. LAIZ, III, Francisco C
858. LAJA, Lanoel S
859. LAMBINO, Meryllainne Rhacquel DG
860. LAMEN-LEGANO, Florence Gay C
861. LAMPA-MANALO, Nina Luisa S
862. LANTAJO, Czarina Rose T
864. LAO, Niniveh B
865. LAPIÑA, Carmichael C
866. LAPUT, Rena Mae A
867. LAROSA, Raynan A
868. LASERNA, Lorielle R
869. LAUBAN, Norhussien U
870. LAURAYA, Jedidiah Martin M
871. LAURENCIANA, Jackelyn B
872. LAUT, Soraya S
873. LAWAGAN, Roy P
874. LAWAGAN, JR., Guillermo F
875. LAYGO, Annie Grace A
876. LAYSON, Avegail P
877. LAZARO, Jacquelyn D
878. LAZARO, Loralyn Anne R
879. LEAÑO, Maria Ofelia S
880. LEDESMA, Lloyd Paul C
881. LEE, Jeanelle C
882. LEE, Kathleen Sherry U
883. LEGASPI, Aaron Jeric M
884. LEGASPI, Maricris G
885. LEGASPI, Marjorie C
886. LEGURPA, Marlon D
887. LEONAR, April Joy B
888. LEQUIGAN, Kaye Hazel C
889. LESTERIO, Nizza P
890. LEVANZA, Ernest P
891. LIANKO, Kathreen Jessica M
892. LIAO, Kirby Bryan M
893. LIBA, Maria Celirina S
894. LIBERATO, Nathaniel P
895. LIBONGCO, Karl Francis A
896. LIM, Arl P
897. LIM, Debbie Anne Y
898. LIM, Paolo Carlo O
899. LIM, Richard Allan A
900. LIM, Robert Jay T
901. LIMCUMPAO, Benigno Russ M
902. LIMFUECO, Shiella Jane R
903. LIMJAP, Michelle F
904. LINA, Niño Don L
905. LINDAIN, Homer V
906. LITUAÑAS, Mary Rose C
907. LIU, Kristine Jane R
908. LIWANAG, Angeline A
909. LLANES, Chaz Angelo Joshua P
910. LOMBOY, Ana Marie C
911. LOMIOAN, Galao G
912. LONGAQUIT, Daniel P
913. LOPA, Maria Caterina Cristina R
914. LOPEZ, Ma. Carina G
915. LOR, Remfel G
916. LORAYES, Kristel Dominique A
917. LORENZO, Frances Adelaide C
918. LORICA, Juan Paolo D
919. LOZANO, Mark V
920. LU, Rochelle Rea A
921. LUBANTE, Jessica B
922. LUCAYLUCAY, Maicha M
923. LUCENARIO, Domingo Iii A
924. LUCILO, Ivy Suzieline E
925. LUGLUG, Jeremy B
926. LUGOD, Cherry Mae D
927. LUKBAN, Ken Xavier T
928. LUKBAN, Ma. Carmela L
929. LULU, John Albert B
930. LUMAPAS, Nestor Crispin Miguel B
931. LUNAR, Lorena Lerma M
932. LUSICA, Richard P
933. LUSUNG, JR., Augusto C
934. MABALOT, Mc Rhondolf Louie V
935. MABAZZA, Jason C
936. MACABABBAD, John Paul D
937. MACABAGDAL, Joanne O
938. MACABALES, John Gilbert F
939. MACABULOS, Eduardo Danilo F
940. MACALALAD, Cresta Amor R
941. MACALANDA, Marion Camille G
943. MACARAEG, Maureen Z
944. MACASA, Joseph Paul A
945. MACATUNO, Honey Leth T
946. MACOD, Sittie Rainnie G
947. MACROHON, Jenielyn A
948. MADARANG, Jo Ann Frances D
949. MADIO, Joel L
950. MADRILEÑO, Lowell Fredrick A
951. MAGA, Bryan John G
952. MAGALONG, Kristina Louise S
953. MAGBUHOS, Denise Dianne A
954. MAGLAQUE, Lorrielaine A
955. MAGLAYA, Cara Mariel S
956. MAGNO, Ian Alfredo T
957. MAGNO, Pacifico Angelo S
959. MAGPUSAO, Chris-jerome J
960. MAGSAYSAY, Margarita Lourdes F
961. MAGSUCI, Jelina Maree D
962. MAGTAGÑOB, Rosanne Jeli G
963. MAGTIBAY, Ma. Lia Karen S
964. MAGULTA, Lara Angela F
965. MALACAS, Ma. Regina O
966. MALANG, William Russel S
967. MALASAGA, Jay P
968. MALIONES, Karen Mae M
969. MAMACLAY, Rosecellini T
970. MAMURI, Jessica Maria M
971. MANAHAN, Lalaine M
972. MANAHAN, II, Zoilo M
973. MANALO, Jonas Anton M
974. MANALO, Mary Joanne M
975. MANALO, Patrick Austin R
976. MANANQUIL, Unica Amor R
977. MANANTAN, Jenny Flor T
978. MANATA, Lita A
979. MANAUIS, Arjay C
981. MANDAP, Joanna Rizza B
982. MANGACOP, Fahad D
983. MANGAHAS, Rosalina T
984. MANGALINDAN, Carmina M
985. MANGALINDAN, Shalom Joy L
986. MANGONDAYA, Aslimah S
987. MANGROBANG, Cristina Elaine D
988. MANGUBAT, Jan G
989. MANGUBAT, Kristine B
990. MANGUNAY, Ann Margaret Q
991. MANIBOG, Korina Ana T
992. MANIQUIS, Maria Estella M
993. MANRIQUE, Ali Loraine V
994. MANTARING, Jeffrey S
995. MANUEL, Maria Theresa Amor C
996. MANUEL, Mark Anthony N
997. MANUEL, Maxine Victor E
998. MANUTA, Michael Jan G
999. MANZANO, Arnold R
1001. MARALLAG-AVE, Kristine R
1002. MARAMAG, Jeremy Jones B
1003. MARANAN, Maica Maris D
1004. MARAVILLA, Mark Brian B
1005. MARIANO, Paul Webster M
1006. MARIANO, Sharmaine Reza B
1007. MARQUEZ, Vincent Mc Eduard M
1008. MARTIN, II, Lito Paolo T
1009. MARTINEZ, Anna Katrina M
1010. MARTINEZ, Emil Angelo C
1011. MARTINEZ, Krys Valen O
1012. MASCENON, Ana Graciella S
1013. MASONGSONG, Christian Leonard V
1014. MATABAN, Vincent C
1015. MATEN, Lene M
1016. MATEO, Jemen A
1017. MATEO, Maria Angelica M
1018. MATEO, Maygenica A
1019. MATIAS, Monchito N
1020. MATIBAG, Ramon Antonio L
1021. MATIVO, Kathleen A
1022. MATOTE, Sofia E
1023. MAULION, Rynbert Anthony L
1024. MAURICIO, Maria Luisa Dominique D
1025. MAURO, Sharilee Angela G
1026. MAUTANTE, Mariam G
1027. MAUYAG, Rishzmin P
1028. MAWIS, Sara Mae D
1029. MAXINO, Izzy Martin R
1030. MAYO, Carlo Magno K
1031. MAYOL, III, Alfredo L
1032. MAÑEGO, Julius Eleazar N
1033. MEDALLE, Mat Eric M
1034. MEDEQUISO, Gwendolyn P
1035. MEDINA, Angiereen D
1036. MEER, Jose Luis Francisco P
1037. MEJIA, Daryll Margaret V
1038. MELEGRITO, Mark John C
1039. MELOTE, Mark Paolo M
1040. MENCHAVEZ, JR., Eric M
1041. MENDEZ, Arvi Gale C
1042. MENDIOLA, Bella Mercedes G
1043. MENDOZA, Angelique M
1044. MENDOZA, Dionne Mae A
1045. MENDOZA, Frances Margarette A
1046. MENDOZA, Jeffrey G
1047. MENDOZA, Jona Christinelli C
1048. MENDOZA, Kristine M
1049. MENDOZA, JR., Manuel T
1050. MENESES, Kristine Grace P
1051. MERCADO, Jeffrey M
1052. MERCADO, Maria Emma Gille A
1053. MERCADO, Paul Joseph V
1054. MERCADO, Roxanne Joyce L
1055. MERIS, Madelaine Anne M
1056. MERIS, Mary Angela M
1057. MESINA, Karla Eunice T
1058. MEÑEZ, Emmanuel Joseph F
1059. MIGRIÑO, Dexter C
1060. MIGRIÑO, Erika Paola M
1061. MILA, Kathlynn B
1062. MILAN, Joel D
1063. MILITANTE, III, Jose Constantino C
1064. MINA, Madeline P
1065. MINA, Matthew Ryan R
1066. MIRAFLOR, Russel C
1067. MIRANDA, Rachel Angeli B
1068. MIRANDO, Margie B
1069. MOHAMMADALI, Sittie Aisah M
1070. MOHAMMADSALI, Al-azree J
1071. MOLETA, Karen H
1072. MOLINA, Dominico Vitto SE
1073. MONATO, III, Marceliano P
1074. MONTALVO, Henson M
1075. MONTAYRE, Maria Gabriela O
1076. MONTENEGRO, Ryan C
1077. MORADA, Marlon D
1078. MORALES, Monique B
1079. MORALES, Waren J
1080. MORDENO, Katrina G
1081. MORELOS, Michelle Ann L
1082. MORENO, Ericson R
1083. MORENO, Lucille Gaye A
1084. MORTEL, Ana Margarita A
1085. MOSQUERA, Florenz Ross S
1086. MOVIDO, Romeo Manuel Joshua R
1087. MUELA, Carl Rupert C
1088. MUIN, Alkhadri H
1089. MUPAS, Janelle C
1090. MURCIA, Carlo Paolo P
1091. MURILLO, Angelo L
1092. MURLA, JR., Wilfred A
1093. MUSNI, Megan Daphne D
1094. MUTI, Jorhany S
1095. MUTIA, Kristine Mae A
1097. MUYUELA, Fatima Mae A
1098. MUÑEZ, Ramon Alfonso T
1099. MUÑEZ, Stephen Don Q
1100. MUÑOZ, Lirio R
1101. NACU, Mary Grace M
1102. NAGA, Michael Demph D
1103. NAGASAN, Leo Kirby B
1104. NAGASE, Chieri B
1105. NAGTALON, Eryl Royce R
1106. NALZARO, Dalton Dave M
1107. NAPALA, Jessica E
1108. NARCA, Anacelle L
1109. NARDO, Gamaliel E
1110. NARTATES, Grace R
1111. NARVASA, Carlo Joaquin T
1112. NAS, Jessamine Jared S
1114. NAVAL-NAGA, Ma. Katrina M
1115. NAVARRA, Christine Mae P
1116. NAVARRETE, Anne Katherine P
1117. NAVARRO, Jimmy D
1118. NENGASCA, Sarah Jane A
1119. NERI, Jorgianna V
1120. NEYRA, Prince Arthur M
1121. NICOLASORA, Maria Joy Rosario S
1122. NITURA, Enrique F
1123. NITURA, Karla Izavella A
1124. NOMBRES, Josa Mary M
1125. NOSCAL, Geoffrey Angelo V
1126. NOVEDA, Kara Mae M
1127. NUÑEZA, Rosalie A
1128. OCBA, Dejeh O
1129. OCHOA, Randy C
1130. OCLARIT, Eunice Grace R
1131. ODOSIS, Derek J
1132. ODUCADO, Nathaniel M
1133. OFILAS, Cathleen Lezette S
1134. OGATIS, Nimrod V
1135. OLA, Jille Audrey F
1136. OLALIA, Mary Ann P
1137. OLID, Shiella P
1138. OLIQUINO, Lea M
1139. OLITA-CABARLES, Mary Lyka M
1140. OLONAN, Virson Tillich G
1141. OLVIS, Olive Corrine N
1142. OMELDA, Nizza U
1143. ONDANGAN, Jandel V
1144. ONG, Astrid Sheevette P
1145. ONG, Hanica Rachael Arshia J
1146. ONG, Mae Lane R
1147. ONG, Ruth Ann Q
1148. ONGCHUAN, Mary Felicci B
1149. OPAY, Jeff Mikol A
1150. OPERIANO, Lord F
1151. OPEÑA, Alexander F
1152. OPEÑA, Edda A
1153. OPLE, Felix Francis B
1154. OPLE, Mildred F
1155. ORALLO, Joana Marie C
1156. ORDANEZA, Mary Joy M
1157. ORDILLO, Sabra Rachel P
1158. ORIÑO, Ian Dominic M
1159. ORPILLA, Richelle H
1160. ORSUA, Reynold L
1161. ORTEZUELA, Daphne Angela L
1162. ORTIZ, Jaypee B
1163. ORTIZ LUIS, Nastasha Dominique G
1164. OSO, Dominic Paul C
1165. OSTIA-ALBURO, Rizzle May R
1166. OYOS, Gerlyn Fe G
1167. PABICO, Kristine D
1168. PABILANE, Frances L
1169. PABLICO, Rizajane B
1170. PABUSTAN, Sheena Marie P
1171. PACLIBAR, Jeena P
1172. PADILLA, Nastasia Anne C
1173. PADILLA, Ysabel Jean B
1174. PAGADUAN, Daryl C
1175. PAGARAN, Rhyan John C
1176. PAGAYANAN, Renz J
1177. PAGTOLON-AN, Rolando B
1178. PAGUIDOPON, Joanne M
1179. PAGURAYAN, Joana May C
1180. PAJE, Rosalie E
1181. PALAC, Fritzgerald Ace S
1182. PALACIO, Aldrin S
1183. PALACIO, Francis Bernard A
1184. PALAD, Eddie Bouy B
1185. PALATTAO, Rose Angeli T
1186. PALENCIA, Maycee D
1187. PALGAN, Arlene P
1188. PALILEO, JR., Fernando C
1189. PALINGPINGAN, Jordan P
1190. PALLADO, Danny L
1191. PALMA, Isabella Gianna P
1192. PALMERA, Roxannie S
1193. PALMONES, Eloisa C
1194. PAMA, III, Edilberto E
1195. PAMATIAN, Reggie Anne D
1196. PAMINIANO, Mary Cris N
1197. PAMINTER, Angela S
1198. PANAO, Rogelio Alicor L
1199. PANDI, Romdell L
1200. PANGAN, Kevin Averell A
1201. PANGANIBAN, Francis Immanuel DC
1202. PANGANIBAN, Muriel Ielaine B
1203. PANGUBAN, Katherine A
1204. PANOTES, Raymond A
1205. PARACAD, John Mark N
1206. PARAÑOS, Roddel R
1207. PAREL, Prince Ever C
1208. PARILLA, Janice M
1209. PARPAN, Camille Ross G
1210. PARTOSA-AGUILAR, Sheridyll M
1211. PARUNGAO, Edwardo D
1212. PASATIEMPO, Eunice Christine Anne T
1213. PASCASIO, Jarmae Z
1214. PASCASIO, Kristina Karen O
1215. PASCUA, Marvin P
1216. PASCUAL, Honey Vanessa S
1217. PASIA, Laurence L
1218. PASICOLAN, Alvin P
1219. PASTOR, Ann Marie Loren R
1220. PASTORAL, Ma. Lourdes Zendy D
1221. PATDU, Lovely Strawberry N
1222. PATIGDAS, Maria Girly V
1223. PATRIARCA, George Franz Nico F
1224. PAULIN, Ivy Steve M
1225. PAULINO, JR., Rolen C
1226. PAÑO, Maria Janina Rosario L
1228. PEDREGOSA, Ana Mae P
1229. PEKAS, Bryan G
1230. PEPITO, Althea Marie B
1231. PERALTA, Julien F
1232. PERALTA, Rhegine T
1233. PEREZ, Barbie Kaye B
1234. PEREZ, Bryan Alphonso E
1235. PEREZ, Gretchen M
1236. PEREZ, Marjorie B
1237. PEREZ DE TAGLE, Gaston Franco V
1238. PERUCHO, Jeralph G
1239. PESTAÑO, Glenn Allen O
1241. PEÑA, Francis Nico F
1242. PEÑALBER, Amirah L
1243. PIA, Madeleine Andrea T
1244. PIGAO, I, John Socrates G
1245. PILA, Garriz P
1246. PILAR, Gilbert H
1247. PINEDA, Glorie Anne
1248. PINEDA, Roger Arpee P
1249. PINILI, Francis David B
1250. PIO-MEDEZ, Josie L
1251. PITALCORIN, Feona Ivana D
1252. PIÑERA, Eleonor E
1253. PIÑERA, Rene Raffy T
1254. PLAZA, Athena C
1255. PLAZA, Lady Love Y
1256. PLAZA, Rafaelita L
1257. POCULAN, Goldie Love I
1258. POLESTICO, Anthony
1259. POLINGA, Julius S
1260. PONCE, Eumel E
1261. PONGAS, Mike Burton M
1262. POON, Jan Jordan L
1263. POTINGAN, Kate C
1264. POZON, Iris M
1265. PRANGA, Rytchum M
1266. PRUDENCIADO, JR., Reynaldo M
1267. PRUDENTE, Francesco Micael N
1268. PUGONG, Gertrude M
1269. PULIDO, Jerano Paulo B
1270. PULIDO-SADIAN, Mary Grace V
1271. PULMA, Rodel James R
1272. PUNO, Jasmine A
1273. PURACAN, Kristine Joy N
1274. PURINO, Mary Rose A
1275. PUSA, Rommel P
1276. PUSAY, Mary Agnes S
1277. PUTUNGAN, Maria Theresa Minda P
1278. QUERIDA, Rosalyn Mary L
1279. QUERUBIN, Jovy Anne V
1280. QUERUBIN, Reiner O
1281. QUIBIR-MAGBIRAY, Maria Ana Zenaida D
1282. QUIBOD, Kristine Mae M
1284. QUIMPO, Naomi Charmaine D
1285. QUINIVISTA, Kristine Mae B
1286. QUINSAYAS, Joseph P
1287. QUINTANA, Retzelyn Mae G
1288. QUINTOS, Hailin DG
1289. QUIROZ, Bernardine V
1290. QUITORIANO, Bernadette M
1291. QUIÑO, Robie P
1292. QUIÑONES, Nathalie B
1293. RABANG, Joahnna Guia E
1294. RAFANAN, Frodina Mafoxci J
1295. RAMACHO, Nathan Joseph P
1296. RAMIREZ, Angelito Emmanuel V
1297. RAMIREZ, Javierose M
1298. RAMOS, Fidel C
1299. RAMOS, Kathleen Teresa M
1300. RAMOS, Ronald A
1301. RAMOS, Ryan Jay R
1302. RAMOS, Theresa D
1303. RAMOS, JR., Conrado O
1304. RASUMAN, Anisa Hafiza L
1305. RAZON, Loubelle L
1306. REAL, Tara Angelique T
1307. REBALDO, Jude Isidro A
1308. RECALDE, JR., Alberto D
1309. RECAMARA, Julienne Marie C
1310. REFUERZO, Esther Katherine R
1311. REGACHO, Erness Faith J
1312. REGALARIO, Jaime Sandino C
1313. REGAÑON, Kenneth E
1314. REGIDOR, Romylyn O
1315. REGIS, Alain Bert G
1316. REGUA, Steve Russel P
1317. REGUCERA, Rexbelli B
1318. REMIGIO, Kristalyn Karen B
1319. REMINAJES-REYES, Jeri Jacqueline T
1320. REMOLACIO, Noel A
1321. REMOLAR, Joanna Kaye B
1322. REMOLLO, Jo Margarette W
1323. REPOSO, John Philipps M
1324. RESPICIO, Jeryll Harold P
1325. RETUYA, Lawrence L
1326. REVILLA, Dinna Lynn P
1328. REVILLOZA, Loyd Greg P
1329. REVOTE, Allan G
1330. REYES, Ana Victoria B
1331. REYES, Carmina C
1332. REYES, Danya T
1333. REYES, Ernest Anthony L
1334. REYES, Ezra Maica R
1335. REYES, Jonathan A
1336. REYES, Joseph Michael C
1337. REYES, Joshua James R
1338. REYES, Lorenzo Marvin S
1339. REYES, Mattheu Jericho A
1340. REYES, Mervin M
1341. REYES, Odessa H
1342. REYES, JR., Conrado DO
1343. REYES, JR., Narciso G
1344. REYES-PATAG, Lesley Anne Y
1345. RILLERA, Denmark M
1346. RILLON, Ruth Maureen C
1347. RIMAS, Melissa M
1349. RIVERA, Ferdinand E
1350. RIVERA, Katrina G
1351. RIVERA, Michelle C
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1353. ROBENIOL, Gabriel Antonio D
1354. ROBIÑO, Nile April P
1355. ROBLES, Basilito M
1356. ROBLES, Prince Rayner D
1357. ROCERO, George D
1358. ROCHA, IV, Ramon I
1359. ROCO, Jose-mari H
1360. RODRIGUEZ, Ella Racquel N
1361. ROJAS, Angelica T
1362. ROJAS, Chelissa Mae N
1363. ROJAS, Ralph Anderson A
1364. ROJAS-CALLAO, Annie C
1365. ROJO, Mark Anthony R
1366. ROMA, II, Alfonso L
1367. ROMANO, Edwin E
1368. ROMANO, Ryan Ceazar P
1369. ROMARATE, Geralyn T
1370. ROMERO, Angeli Patricia C
1371. ROMERO, Ralph Christian B
1372. ROMUAR, Ma. Cherie Bambi R
1373. ROMULO, Carlos Celestino F
1375. ROSALES, Giness Marie G
1376. ROSALES, Regina Patricia C
1377. ROSALES, Richard M
1378. ROSALES, Ronn Robby D
1379. ROSARIO, Earl Caezar N
1380. ROSAS, Reeld Holly D
1381. ROXAS, Rochelle Marie C
1382. ROXAS, Roxan O
1383. ROXAS TAN, Vincent S
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1385. RUBICA-SABORDO, Charade Circe C
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1387. RUBIO-AGUINALDO, Mishelle Anne R
1388. RUGA, Hana Chrisna C
1389. RUIZ, Ma. Buena Magdalena R
1390. RUTOR, Lyndon W
1391. RUYERAS, William Angelo B
1392. SABA, Kayzer Aldrin Z
1393. SABALO, Brian B
1394. SABELLANO, Kenny C
1395. SABELO, Marte M
1396. SABILALA, Dan Bernard S
1397. SACLOT, Jeffrey C
1398. SACOTE, Lilaben A
1399. SACRAMENTO, Patrick D
1400. SACRO, Marielle Kriza T
1401. SADAIN, Jameela S
1402. SADICON, Marianne Faith B
1403. SADONGDONG, Jerome B
1404. SAGPAEY, Jenny A
1405. SAGUIN, JR., Rogelio H
1406. SAGUINSIN, Loraine D
1407. SAGUN, Ruelan L
1408. SALAMATIN, April Michelle D
1409. SALANGA, Rowena Angela C
1410. SALANGUIT, Marian B
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1412. SALAPANG, Annie Sheila C
1413. SALAS, Athena M
1414. SALAS, Pearl Joy M
1415. SALAS, JR., Alexander G
1416. SALAYOG, Kyra Vernice G
1417. SALCEDO, Michelle B
1418. SALDON, Christ Shaney C
1419. SALIG, Hyacinth Marie T
1420. SALINAS, Alicia P
1421. SALINDO, Elvin S
1422. SALIOT, Riona Vince S
1423. SALISE, Mary Christine Anthonette M
1424. SALIZON, Benedic G
1425. SALLY, Ferdinand T
1426. SALON, Ephraim D
1427. SALUNAT, Early Joy L
1428. SAMEDRA, Arvy Chris D
1429. SAN AGUSTIN, Geoff Lyn D
1430. SAN JOSE, Riza Kristina E
1431. SAN PEDRO, Jose Maria Ceasar C
1432. SANCHEZ, Alfie Sonia Q
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1435. SANCHEZ, Ralph J
1436. SANCHO, Alona Margaret B
1437. SANDIGAN, Ronald Ryan A
1438. SANDOVAL, Anna Kristina B
1439. SANIEL, Jose Ruel A
1440. SANTAMINA, Angelie B
1441. SANTIAGO, Joanna Elvira L
1442. SANTIAGO, Katrina Gynne F
1443. SANTIAGO, Miguel Antonio P
1444. SANTILLAN, Phoebe Samantha A
1445. SANTOS, Aaron Bailey G
1446. SANTOS, Al Marvin W
1447. SANTOS, Christian Lloyd S
1448. SANTOS, Hyacinth B
1449. SANTOS, Jim Joel N
1450. SANTOS, John Terry H
1451. SANTOS, Jose Antonio Rafael G
1452. SANTOS, Jose Manuel S
1453. SANTOS, Karen Anne G
1454. SANTOS, Louie L
1455. SANTOS, Louie Ernest B
1456. SANTOS, Marc Mikhaele J
1457. SANTOS, Maria Irene I
1458. SANTOS, Maricar Jan M
1459. SANTOS, Mario D
1460. SANTOS, Roselee B
1461. SANTOS, Ryan G
1462. SANTOS, III, Lamberto L
1463. SAPORNE, Maria Cecilia T
1464. SARANDI, Abigail Moffait P
1465. SARITA, Cecille Angela T
1466. SARMIENTO, Maria Kristel B
1467. SASPA, Dianah Jee U
1468. SAYO, Patricia Anne S
1469. SAYSON, James Allan C
1470. SEBASTIAN, Bobby Johnson O
1471. SEGOVIA, Maria Cielito B
1472. SEGUBRE, Paolo M
1473. SEGUI, Adrian Donald L
1474. SEGUNDO, Karissa Inez A
1475. SEIT, Jade Q
1476. SEMILLANO, Mipps Mardie
1477. SENAJON, Cristyl Mae B
1478. SENTILLAS, Kenneth Roy E
1479. SENUPE, Ma. Juanna Ester D
1480. SERASPI, Chinky Dane C
1481. SERRANO, Erika Sheena C
1482. SERRANO, Lennard Constantine C
1483. SERZO, Aiken Larisa O
1484. SESE, Rens Gener P
1485. SEVA, Jose Pio J
1486. SEVILLA, Prince Junel G
1487. SEVILLA, Toni Lou S
1488. SIA, Rowneylin SJ
1489. SIAZON, Leigh Nicole TC
1490. SICCUAN, Don Mikhail A
1491. SILANG, Valery Ann P
1492. SILAO, Coravirna D
1493. SILONGAN, JR., Ibrahim K
1494. SILVA, Angelo Joseph C
1495. SILVA, Merlo Vinia C
1496. SILVA, Nikko Emmanuel D
1497. SIMON, Simon L
1498. SINCO, Noel Y
1499. SING, Anthony L
1500. SINGCOL, Anna Katrina T
1501. SINGZON, Anthony U
1502. SINOCRUZ, Fay Kristina P
1503. SINSONA, JR., Norberto J
1504. SIRON, Rafaela P
1505. SISON, Charm D
1506. SISON, John Michael O
1507. SISON, Kimberly Rae A
1508. SOL, JR., Rodolfo A
1509. SOLIMAN, Rhea-ann J
1510. SOLINAP, John Leo D
1511. SOLLANO, Ma. Mikhaella Rosario Z
1512. SOLLESTRE, Sheryl M
1513. SOMES, Erwin A
1514. SORIANO, Cassioppea Jerose V
1515. SORIAO, Howell Ivan Ritche B
1516. SOTTO, Darwin C
1517. SQUILLANTINI, Claudia Gabriella R
1518. STA. CRUZ, Juan Antonio D
1519. STA. MARIA, Patricia Anne D
1520. STO. TOMAS, Jefferson H
1522. SUBA, Nasrifa S
1523. SUGGUIYAO, Amirozelle Katya G
1524. SULIT, Juzzelyx B
1525. SUMAYOD, JR., Alejandro S
1526. SUMBILLA, JR., Vedasto B
1527. SUMERGIDO, Katty Khee G
1528. SUMINGUIT, Ramel C
1529. SUMOGBA, JR., Enrique T
1530. SUN, Jason Oliver C
1531. SUPATAN, Lorena M
1532. SUPE, Mary Hariette B
1533. SUPERABLE, Nonalyn S
1534. SUPNET, Winly Joy L
1535. SURUIZ, Jonar M
1536. SUSVILLA, Ivy B
1537. SY, Jacklyn Kim L
1538. SY, John Habib J
1539. SY, Kenneth Elvin C
1540. SYDIONGCO, Jacqueline Carlotta B
1541. SYSON, Patricia Leticia R
1542. SZE, Maria Lourdes G
1543. TABBU, Ruby Joyce S
1544. TABILISMA, Marlon P
1545. TABOADA, Giovanne C
1546. TADE, Chelsea Raye N
1547. TADLAS, Jed Libby B
1548. TAGANAS, Iris Pauline G
1549. TAGUINOD-MAGGAY, Tshaine B
1551. TALAN, Glady Mae S
1552. TALAO, Vincent Paul R
1553. TALDE, Jay-b L
1554. TALINGTING, Avril Reina O
1555. TAM, Leoni Mae Rubi L
1556. TAMAYO, Karen Rose C
1557. TAMAYO, Vixid Role T
1558. TAMBAOAN, Joan Carmel S
1559. TAMBOR, Jennidy S
1560. TAMPIS, Doris Moriel B
1561. TAMPUS, Shane May B
1562. TAN, Deo Virgil R
1563. TAN, Jeffrey Rod Y
1564. TAN, Jose Lorenzo C
1565. TAN, Mahrra Anna P
1566. TAN, Nico Bryan P
1567. TAN, Suzette H
1568. TAN-ESTANDARTE, Marene Rose F
1569. TANDOC, Mark Haddison P
1570. TANTUAN, Edhona C
1571. TAPIA, JR., Judito H
1572. TAQUIO, Maria Cristina B
1573. TARIGA, Marc Eico C
1574. TARUC, Rhyzzi Celine S
1575. TATCO, Kevin Christopher C
1576. TAWARAN, Jennifer M
1577. TAYLO, III, Jose Herminio D
1578. TE, Jill Angeline R
1579. TECSON, Katherine Michel V
1580. TEJADA, Dan Tristan T
1581. TEMBLOR, Vilmalen M
1582. TENGCO, Sheenalyn R
1583. TEODORO, Pascual Agusto Carlo P
1584. TEOPE, JR., Mario R
1585. TEVES, Maria Althea M
1586. TICZON, Maria Kristelle A
1587. TIGSON, John Benedict T
1588. TILOS, Fenna Marie A
1589. TIMBOL, Rodney C
1590. TINAGAN, Ingrid T
1591. TIU, Jericho R
1592. TIU, Sean Carlo C
1593. TOCAO, Zehan Loren E
1594. TOLEDO, Eleonor U
1595. TOLENTINO, Julie Ann B
1596. TOLENTINO, Lyka Leigh M
1597. TOLENTINO, Rose Ann O
1598. TOLENTINO, Sonby Adam A
1599. TOMBOC, Paul Angelo F
1600. TONGSON, Tristan Jason R
1601. TONOG, Franco Archie N
1602. TOPACIO, Alexandria J
1603. TORALBA, Marty Franz F
1604. TORNO, Jesa Kristi R
1605. TORRALBA, Connie Beb A
1606. TORRE, John Lerrie I
1607. TORRES, Aljeane F
1608. TORRES, Lameriza M
1609. TORRIZO, JR., Romeo S
1610. TOVERA, Marilyn Sharina R
1611. TRAYA, Rex Julius A
1612. TRIA, Dani Lynne P
1613. TRIESTE, JR., Gerome M
1614. TRINIDAD, Peter Neil E
1615. TRINIDAD, Ysabel Fatima N
1616. TRINIDAD, JR., Mario P
1617. TRONQUED, Marlon Iñigo T
1618. TUAZON, Diana Jean M
1619. TUAZON, Jolina Pauline T
1620. TUAZON, Lara Karina S
1621. TUBIERA, Hana Marita H
1622. TUGUIC, Joshua B
1623. TUMALIUAN, Bong Richard M
1624. TUMAMAO, Ramse A
1627. TUMARU, Bernard Joseph V
1628. TUMARU, Karla Mae V
1630. TUÑACAO, Tiffany L
1631. UBOD, Camille Therese L
1632. UGSAD, Francis Bon C
1633. UMALI, Francis Rainier B
1634. URBANOZO, Laird Dionel N
1635. URBINA, Jamila R
1636. URSAL, Ernesto (junjun) L
1637. UY, Josie Antonette M
1638. UY, Martin Juris V
1639. UY, Michael Vincent M
1640. UY, Nathaniel Andrew Y
1641. UY, Paul Angelo R
1642. UY, Philip Michael C
1643. UY, Rona Gail V
1644. UY, Sittie Fahanie S
1645. VALDEZ, Alexis Janet J
1646. VALDEZ, Katrina Grace A
1647. VALE, Dianne C
1648. VALENCIA, Celine Blesilda A
1649. VALENCIA, Charlon Reinier O
1650. VALENZUELA, Cherrie Rose C
1651. VALENZUELA, Chery Sheil T
1652. VALERIANO, Victor Napoleon D
1653. VALLECER-PATCHO, Vanessa Marie C
1654. VALLINAS, Lorraine Jean V
1655. VALMONTE, Leorae D
1656. VARIAS, Varbra Ann A
1657. VARON, Roy M
1658. VASQUEZ, Jimmy E
1659. VEJANO, Marcus Julius D
1660. VELARDE, Jessa Ela L
1661. VELASCO, Andrew O
1662. VELASCO, Gerald M
1663. VELASCO, Paul Dominic R
1664. VELASCO, Ric John F
1665. VELASCO, Richard Andrew P
1666. VELASCO, Venus C
1667. VELASQUEZ, Jed Erickson M
1668. VELO, JR., Rosendo S
1669. VERANA, Ileen Mae V
1670. VERONILLA, Leni Fae P
1671. VERZOSA, Francisco Miguel T
1672. VERZOSA, Patricia Ester R
1673. VEVA, Ryan C
1674. VICENCIO, Jared Cecillo C
1675. VIDAURRETA, Irene D
1676. VIERNES, Cherry Anne D
1677. VILCHES, Gian Frances Nicole C
1678. VILIRAN, Christian DC
1679. VILLACORTE, Ginnie T
1680. VILLAFUERTE, Abygail June R
1681. VILLALUZ, Almera J
1682. VILLALVA, Maria Andrea C
1683. VILLAMAR, Lawrence P
1684. VILLAMOR, Anthony V
1685. VILLANUEVA, Franz Marie L
1686. VILLANUEVA, Joeyfer S
1687. VILLANUEVA, Matt Jayson S
1688. VILLANUEVA, Victor Lorenzo L
1689. VILLANUEVA-ARABIS, Maria Cristina A
1690. VILLAPANDO, Simon Peter D
1691. VILLARIN, Donnie Wayne M
1692. VILLAROJO, Sunny Ray
1693. VILLAROMAN, Gerald Tristan D
1694. VILLARUBIA, Grethel V
1695. VILLARUEL, Rita Odessa A
1696. VILLASANTA, Rosarie Raysalyn Z
1697. VILLATUYA, Luigi Miguel P
1698. VILLEGAS, Levie C
1699. VILLEGAS, Mara Angeli T
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1701. VILLENA, John Mark C
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1708. VITO, Ma. Fionna B
1709. WATANABE, Yoko Carolyn C
1710. WENCESLAO, Ma. Paula Michelle M
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1715. YARANON, Andrea Nikka A
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1719. YOUNG, Wesley Jefferson C
1720. YU, Nyera Hyssene O
1721. YU, Ralph Martin C
1722. YUCHONGTIAN, Annelli Jade S
1723. YULO, Judy Anne Y
1724. YUMUL, Maria Carmela C
1725. ZABALA, Raymond Rainier L
1726. ZAMBO, Bryan Anthony P
1727. ZAMORA-REY, Maria Fatima I
1728. ZAPATA, Don Jan C
1729. ZARAGOZA, Israel Jacob R
1730. ZORILLA, Ritchelle R
1731. ZULUETA-PLAMERAS, Jasmin Angeli Grace R

Posted by: Elmer Brabante | April 6, 2016

A Brief Review on the Theories of Punishment


Throughout the long history and development of societies and the institutionalization of states, and as states enact laws to ensure justice and equality in their respective territories, the question arises as to whether the social institution of punishment is justifiable. Why do states enact laws that define specified conduct as criminal or immoral and impose punishment for violation of those laws? Whom or what do these punishments protect? What are the parameters that would make punishments effective? What are the competing philosophies of punishment that have been advanced in response to crimes? Are recidivists, habitual delinquents, terrorists, and drug traffickers capable of reformation? Since punishment involves pain or deprivation that people wish to avoid, when is the intentional imposition by the state of extreme punishments such as the death penalty justified?  Is a just society without punishments possible? These are some of the central questions that this paper aims to address.

Before going directly to the responses to these questions, one essential question need be raised first: What is the definition of Punishment, and can a definition be proposed that meets the test of neutrality?

Punishment may be defined as the authorized imposition of deprivations of freedoms or other goods to which the person has a right or the imposition of special burdens because the person has been found guilty of criminal violation, typically involving harm to the innocent.[1]

A definition of Punishment cannot be neutral, considering that it has the following elements or properties: (1) It is an act by a political authority having jurisdiction over the community, not an incidental accidental harm; (2) it is an objectively judged loss or burden; (3) it is a social institution, not a natural event outside human purposes, intentions and acts; and (4) it is an imposition following a determination of guilt.

Is the social institution of punishment warranted? Why do states enact laws that define specified conduct as criminal or immoral and impose punishment for violation of those laws? Whom or what do punishments protect? What are the parameters that would make punishments effective? What are the competing philosophies of punishment that have been advanced in response to crimes?

All principles of justice focus on sustaining a society where people shall be encouraged to do cooperative and useful actions and dissuaded from harming social institutions, where all things are ordered fairly and where relationships are supported by social sanctions, both positive and negative (rewards and punishments). According to Rawls,[2] even in a well-ordered society, the coercive powers of government are to some degree necessary for the stability of social cooperation. The role of authorized collective sanctions, of the social institution of punishment, is warranted precisely to overcome instability; the existence of effective penal machinery serves as men’s security to one another. The principles justifying these sanctions can be derived from the principles of liberty and responsibility.

All societies and social groups develop ways to control behavior that violates norms. Social control is also achieved directly through external sources that compel individuals to conform through the threat of social reaction. Regardless of whether conformity results from personal desires or external compulsion, conformity is ultimately achieved through the use and threat of punishments.[3]

In a just society, undeserved victimization is understood to violate individual rights and social institutions and is therefore prohibited and punishable by law. The justification of punishment will depend upon more general political and moral theory, consistent with the responsibilities for legal protection afforded by a just society. The central instrument for the protection of individual rights and social institutions is the penal sanction attached to the law that defines certain harmful acts as crimes, following the maxim, nullum crimen nulla poena sine lege (There is no crime nor punishment except in accordance with law). 

Even in a just society, not every person will comply with the law, and not everyone who does comply will do so out of respect for the rights of others. Hence, the fundamental rights-protecting principle on which the system of punishment is built: It is better to increase law compliance by liability to sanctions of those who would otherwise violate the law than it is to permit them to act on their perverse autonomy without any socially imposed cost to themselves, since that would require us to tolerate the victimization of the innocent. For that reason, rational self-interested persons acting behind the veil of ignorance would choose to impose on themselves and on others a liability to criminal sanctions for certain law violations. Thus, the establishment of punishments as social institution is warranted.

If the punitive sanction is to function effectively as a preventive of noncompliance, then it must be perceived not only as a legitimate threat but also as a credible threat. Its legitimacy is established by its protection of individual and collective rights, its authorization by constitutional procedures, and its administration through due process and equal protection of the law. Its credibility is established by its being generally perceived to be both reasonably severe and effectively enforced.

Generally, the theories of justification of punishment may be broadly classified as utilitarian and non-utilitarian. What distinguishes these theories is their focus and goals: utilitarian theories are forward-looking concerned with the future consequence of punishment; non-utilitarian theories are backward-looking, interested in the past acts and mental states; and mixed theories are both forward- and backward-looking.

  1. Non-Utilitarian Theory of Punishment

 Retributive theory of punishment. One of the oldest and most basic justification for punishment involves the principles of revenge and retribution. Neither constrained by questions of offender culpability nor directed at preventing future wrongdoing, offenders under a retributive philosophy simply get what they deserve. Punishment is justified on its own grounds. Concepts of desert and justice occupy a central place in most retributive theories: in accordance with the demands of justice, wrongdoers are thought to deserve to suffer, so punishment is justified on the grounds that it gives to wrongdoers what they deserve. Applying Kant’s “principle of equality,”[4] if a wrongful act is committed, then the person who has committed it has upset the balance of the scale of justice; he has inflicted suffering on another and therefore rendered himself deserving of suffering. So in order to balance the scale of justice, it is necessary to inflict the deserved suffering on him.” For Kant, the justification of retributive punishment is derived from the principle of retaliation (lex talionis), which is grounded in the principle of equality.

Consistent with retributive philosophy, punishment focuses mainly on the gravity and characteristics of the criminal act rather than the offender. Retributivists argue that more serious offenses should be punished more severely because offenders who commit more serious crimes deserve harsher punishment than those who commit less serious crimes. Many contemporary retributivists hold that the “principle of proportionality” should be used in order to determine the amount of punishment, in that, “the amount of punishment should be proportionate to the moral seriousness or moral gravity of offenses. Hence, the centerpiece of most argument in favor of capital punishment is retributive: Murderers, those who deliberately cause an innocent person’s death, have rendered themselves deserving of death.

The retributivists rely on the assumption that the criminal laws whose violation makes one eligible for punishment protect genuine individual rights. Were this not so, the retributivists could not claim that justice requires punishment for the violation of the law. Retribution is not cruel because it treats a criminal with dignity. Kant categorically rejected punishment as means to end because it amounts to use of man for others, which is against the principle of human dignity. The doctrine of desert, fairness, and proportionality rejects cruel, barbaric, and uncivilized punishment of vengeance theory (lex talionis).

The primary merit of the retributive justification of punishment is that it aims to punish only voluntary acts and excludes involuntary acts, unlike the utilitarian punishment which applies to all acts, intended or unintended, voluntary or involuntary. However, while retributive punishments like the death penalty is proper for heinous crimes (especially those committed against persons such as murder, homicide, or rape), is the imposition of death penalty or even of reclusion perpetua (imprisonment for 20 years and one day to 40 years) justified for commission of crimes against national security (treason[5]), against public order (rebellion, insurrection, coup d’etat[6]), or those committed by public officers (qualified bribery[7])?

2. Utilitarian Theories of Punishment

 Utilitarianism is the moral theory that holds that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the balance between good and evil that is produced by that action. When attempting to determine whether a punishment is justifiable, utilitarians will attempt to anticipate the likely consequences of carrying out the punishment. if punishing the offender would most likely produce the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness compared with other available options, then the punishment is justified.

Utilitarianism is concerned mainly with the balance of happiness over unhappiness produced by an action. When attempting to determine the amount of punishment that ought to be permitted for a given offense, it is necessary to weigh the unhappiness that would be caused by the offense against the unhappiness caused by various punishments. The greater the unhappiness caused by a given offense, the greater the amount of punishment that may be inflicted for that offense in order to reduce its occurrence before the unhappiness caused by the punishment outweighs the unhappiness caused by the offense.

Bentham’s utilitarian theory holds that punishment is a means to an end and seeks to punish the offenders to discourage or deter future wrongful acts.  Utilitarian theories can be categorized as Reformative, Restorative, and Compensatory.

Rehabilitative and restorative theories of punishment look at sanctions as instrument of rehabilitation and attempts to mold the behavior of the criminal on the premise that human acts are affected by social environment and psychological factors; therefore, it is the duty of society to reform him by adopting certain mechanisms of reintegration. Less frequent use of imprisonment, abandonment of short incapacitation, the use of prisons for training, and greater employment of probation, parole and suspended sentences are evidence of reformative trends of punishments. These trends reject the deterrent and retributive justifications of punishment.

Although it may seem contradictory or at least odd to assert that we punish for the treatment and reform of offenders, this basic principle underlies the rehabilitation purpose of punishment. The ultimate goal of rehabilitation is to restore the convicted offender to a constructive place in society through some combination of treatment, education, and training. In contrast to retribution that emphasizes uniform punishments based on the gravity of misconduct, rehabilitation focuses on the particular characteristics of individual offenders that require treatment and intervention.

Restorative justice literally involves the process of returning to their previous condition all parties involved in or affected by the original misconduct, including victims, offenders, the community, and even possibly the government. Under this punishment philosophy, the offender takes full responsibility for the wrongdoing and initiates restitution to the victim. Community mediation groups, neighborhood councils, local support groups, and victim-offender conferences are the primary means of achieving these restorative efforts.

The aims of the rehabilitative punishment may be noble, but the success of its aims depends on the capacity and willingness of the government to provide adequate infrastructure and prison facilities. Is society willing to invest on the convicted criminals? Is reformation possible to prisoners who committed most heinous crimes such as murder, rape, drug and human trafficking, terrorism…?  Reformative theories of rehabilitation and restoration may apply and can be effective only on certain non-severe crimes but not to all crimes.

Compensatory theory of punishment rests primarily on the ground that an offender  who inflicted injury against persons or property must compensate for the loss of the victim. Under the Civil Code of the Philippines, actual or compensatory damages are awarded to the one entitled to compensation only for such pecuniary loss suffered by him and he has duly proved. Indemnification for damages shall comprehend not only the value of the loss suffered, but also that of the profits which the obligee failed to obtain.[8]

Other forms of damages such as moral, exemplary, nominal, temperate, actual, and liquidated forms of damages are applications of the compensatory theory of punishment. Under the Civil Code, an award of moral damages is premised on the physical suffering, mental anguish, fright, serious anxiety, besmirched reputation, wounded feelings, moral shock, social humiliation, and similar injury suffered by the victim.[9]

Exemplary or corrective damages[10] are imposed, by way of example or correction for the public good, in addition to moral, temperate, liquidated or compensatory damages. In criminal offenses, exemplary damages as a part of the civil liability may be imposed when the crime was committed with one or more aggravating circumstances. In quasi-delicts (those committed without criminal intent), exemplary damages may be granted if the defendant acted with gross negligence. In contracts and quasi-contracts, the court may award exemplary damages if the defendant acted with wanton, fraudulent, reckless, oppressive, or malevolent manner.

Nominal damages are adjudicated in order that a right of the plaintiff, which has been violated or invaded by the defendant, may be vindicated or recognized, and not for the purpose of indemnifying the plaintiff for any loss suffered by him.[11]

 3. Mixed or Compromise Theories of Punishment

 Many theorists have attempted to take features of utilitarianism and retributivism and combine them into a theory that retains the strengths of both while overcoming their weaknesses. This theory holds the idea that punishment should promote good consequences, such as reduction of crime, and that justice and the desert of the offender should play a central role in a justification of punishment even when nobody’s welfare would be promoted.

In response to the challenge of whether combination of retributivist and utilitarianist punishment is possible, Hart states that the question of “What justifies the general practice of punishment is a question of “General Justifying Aim” and ought to be answered by citing utilitarian concerns. The second question “To whom may punishment be applied” is a question of “Distribution” and ought to be answered by citing retributive concerns. Hart holds that we may not apply punishment indiscriminately, but only punish an offender for an offense.

Deterrent theory of punishment, according to most scholars of criminal law and legal philosophy, should be categorized under the utilitarian theory of punishment. However, a thorough scrutiny of its nature and functions will suggest that it should be treated as a mixture of the retributive and utilitarian theories or justification of punishment, especially when the subject is death penalty as the ultimate deterrent punishment and as a just punishment for a gravest offense.  The theory holds that temporary to permanent relief is afforded to the victims and the society for as long as the criminal is incapacitated in prison or terminally removed from the circles of society.

A combination of utilitarian and retributive considerations are usually invoked in an effort to justify the execution of murderers. The centerpiece of most arguments in favor of capital punishment is retributive: Murderers deserve to be put to death, an argument along Kantian lines. Utilitarians generally argue that capital punishment can deter potential murderers – Since many human beings’ greatest fear is death, the intuitive plausibility of this claim is clear.

Is a just society without punishments possible?

The question begs itself insofar as the subject of society is first of all qualified to be just. If that society has attained the quality of being just, insofar as all its members have attained goodness and happiness without evil and unhappiness, then the institution of punishments is no longer warranted. All theories adhere to its possibility; they differ only in the proximity of that possibility.

  • – – – – –

[1] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

[2] John Rawls, A Theory of Justice. 1991, 211-212.

[3] Miethe, Terence and Hong Lu, Punishment A Comparative Historical Perspective.  Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[4] Immanuel Kant, Metaphysics of Morals: Even if a civil society were to dissolve itself by common agreement of all its members, the last murder remaining in the prison must be executed, so that everyone will duly receive what his actions are worth and so that the bloodguilt thereof will not be fixed on the people because they failed to insist on carrying out the punishment; for if they fail to do so, they may be regarded as accomplices in this public violation of justice.

[5] Art. 114, RPC. Any Filipino citizen who levies war against the Philippines or adheres to her enemies, giving them aid or comfort within the Philippines or elsewhere, shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to death and shall pay a fine not exceeding 100,000 pesos.

[6] Arts. 134, 134-A, and 135, RPC. The crime of rebellion or insurrection is committed by rising publicly and taking arms against the Government for the purpose of removing from the allegiance to said Government or its laws, the territory of the Republic of the Philippines or any part thereof, of any body of land, naval, or other armed forces or depriving the Chief Executive or the Legislature, wholly or partially, of any of their powers or prerogatives.

The crime of coup d’etat is a swift attack accompanied by violence, intimidation, threat, strategy or stealth, directed against duly constituted authorities of the Republic of the Philippines, or any military camp or installation, communication networks, public utilities or other facilities needed for the exercise and continued possession of power, singly or simultaneously carried out anywhere in the Philippines by any person or persons, belonging to the military or police or holding any public office or employment with or without civilian support or participation for the purpose of seizing or diminishing state power.

Any person who promotes, maintains, or heads a rebellion or insurrection, shall suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua…. Any person who leads or in any manner directs or commands others to undertake a coup d’etat shall suffer the penalty of reclusion perpetua.

[7] Art. 211-A, RPC. If any public officer is entrusted with law enforcement and he refrains from arresting or prosecuting an offender who has committed a crime punishable by reclusion perpetua and/or death in consideration of any offer, promise, gift or present, he shall suffer the penalty for the offense which was not prosecuted.  If it is the public officer who asks or demands such gift or present, he shall suffer the penalty of death.

[8] Art. 2199, Civil Code of the Philippines, which is a faithful translation from the Codigo Civil of Spain that adopted the Judeo-Christian tradition of punishment.

[9] Art. 2217, ibid.

[10] Arts. 2229, 2230, 2231, and 2232, ibid.

[11] Art. 2221, ibid.

The independent survey research I conducted on March 10-18 with 6,011 students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (Sta. Mesa) as respondents yielded the following results:


A. As to the preferred President should the elections be held during the period of the survey

1. Rodrigo Duterte – 2,370 (39.4%)
2. Miriam Defensor-Santiago – 2,137 (35.6%)
3. Grace Poe-Llamanzares – 687 (11.4%)
4. Jejomar Binay – 337 (5.6%)
5. Manuel Roxas III – 292 (4.9%)
6. No Choice – 188 (3.1%)

B. As to the preferred Vice President should the elections be held during the period of the survey

1. Ferdinand R. Marcos – 2,411 (40.1%)
2. Allan Peter Cayetano – 1,138 (19.0%
3. Francis Escudero – 1,068 (17.8%)
4. Leni Robredo – 670 (11.1%)
5. Antonio Trillanes IV – 416 (6.9%)
6. Gregorio Honasan – 171 (2.8%)
7. No Choice – 137 (2.3%)

C. As to the preferred Senators should the elections be held during the period of the survey

Rank Candidates F=58,284 Percentage
1 Franklin Drilon 3,456 59.30
2 Richard Gordon 3,446 59.12
3 Leila De Lima 3,342 57.34
4 Risa Hontiveros 3,337 57.25
5 Win Gatchalian 3,312 56.82
6 Ralp Recto 3,146 53.97
7 Juan Miguel Zubiri 2,953 50.68
8 Panfilo Lacson 2,889 49.57
9 Sergio Osmeña III 2,790 47.87
10 Vicente Sotto 2,742 47.04
11 Francis Pangilinan 2,729 46.82
12 Joel Villanueva 2,020 34.66
13 Martin Romualdez 1,738 29.82
14 Teofisto TG Guingona 1,710 29.33
15 Manuel Pacquiao 1,606 27.55
16 Isko Moreno Domagoso 1,348 23.13
17 Neri Comenares 1,265 21.70
18 Francis Tolentino 1,257 21.56
19 Roman Romulo 1,141 19.58
20 Mark Lapid 1,071 18.38
21 Edu Manzano 1,020 17.50
22 Mel Chavez 584 10.01
23 Greco Belgica 550 9.43
24 Lorna Kapunan 539 9.24
25 Susan Ople 537 9.21
26 Dionisio Santiago 531 9.11
27 Jericho Petilla 491 8.42
28 Alma Moreno Lacsamana 469 4.68
29 Rey Langit 462 7.93
30 Mr. Coop Paez 361 6.19
31 Allan Montano 339 5.81
32 Walden Bello 317 5.43
33 Mon Montaño 315 5.40
34 Jovito Palparan 302 5.18
35 Getulio Napenas 292 5.00
36 Larry Gadon 281 4.82
37 Princess Jacel Kiram 254 4.35
38 Diosdado Valeroso 253 4.34
39 Dante Liban 242 4.15
40 Romeo Maganto 225 3.86
41 Godofredo Arquiza 217 3.72
42 Shariff Albani 198 3.40
43 Samuel Pagdilao 189 3.24
44 Sandra Cam 175 3.00
45 Eid Kabalu 159 2.72
46 Levito Baligod 158 2.71
47 Aldin Ali 140 2.40
48 Ray Dorona 139 2.38
49 Ina Ambolodto 125 2.14
50 Rafael Alunan 102 1.75

D. As to the factors or qualities of the candidates that motivate the respondents to choose a particular candidate


Rank Factors or Qualities Frequency F/N
1 LEADERSHIP STYLE 17,489 2.90
2 Advocacy 18,616 3.09
3 Education 22,954 3.18
4 Character 25,533 4.24
5 Personality 27,244 4.53
6 Work Experience 29,645 4.93
7 Age and Health 37,683 6.26
8 Family Background 41,492 6.90
9 Political Party Affiliation 45,583 7.58
10 Civil Status 46,902 7.80
11 Wealth/Financial Status 50,105 8.33
12 Religion 50,734 8.44
13 Regional Origin 51,022 8.48
14 Popularity 54,169 9.01
15 Sex / Gender 61,317 10.20


Posted by: Elmer Brabante | February 18, 2015

Questionnaire for the Research

Please click the link below to generate the PDF file of the Survey Form for our research study.

Please be reminded that the deadline for the data-gathering is the fourth week of February 2015.



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 20, 2014

Reference Materials in Argumentation and Debate

Please click the link below to generate the PDF files.





Posted by: Elmer Brabante | November 6, 2014




 Ms. A had been married to Mr. B for 10 years. Since their marriage, Mr. B had been jobless and a drunkard, preferring to stay with his “barkadas” until the wee hours of the morning. Ms. A was the breadwinner and attended to the needs of their three (3) growing children. Many times, when Mr. B was drunk, he would beat Ms. A and their three (3) children, and shout invectives against them. In fact, in one of the beating incidents, Ms. A suffered a deep stab wound on her tummy that required a prolonged stay in the hospital. Due to the beatings and verbal abuses committed against her, she consulted a psychologist several times, as she was slowly beginning to lose her mind. One night, when Mr. B arrived dead drunk, he suddenly stabbed Ms. A several times while shouting invectives against her.  Defending herself from the attack, Ms. A grappled for the possession of a knife and she succeeded. She then stabbed Mr. B several times which caused his instantaneous death. Medico-Legal Report showed that the husband suffered three (3) stab wounds. Can Ms. A validly put up a defense? Explain. (5%)

 Yes, Ms. A can validly put up the defense of battered woman syndrome.

 Under RA 9262, the battered woman syndrome can be invoked as a defense by a woman who killed her husband or a man with whom she had a dating relationship after having been a victim of a series of physical or psychological violence inflicted against her or her child by the man.

 Here, Ms. A was a victim of a series of physical and psychological violence by her husband Mr. B. Hence, Ms. A can validly put up the defense of battered woman syndrome.



 Macho married Ganda, a transgender. Macho was not then aware that Ganda was a transgender. On their first night, after their marriage, Macho discovered that Ganda was a transgender. Macho confronted Ganda and a heated argument ensued. In the course of the heated argument, a fight took place wherein Ganda got hold of a knife to stab Macho. Macho ran away from the stabbing thrusts and got his gun which he pointed at Ganda just to frighten and stop Ganda from continuing with the attack. Macho had no intention at all to kill Ganda. Unfamiliar with guns, Macho accidentally pulled the trigger and hit Ganda that caused the latter’s death. What was the crime committed? (4%)

 Macho had committed the crime of Homicide, mitigated by no intent to commit so grave a wrong.

Under the Revised Penal Code (RPC), Homicide is committed when, without the qualifying circumstances for Murder, a person inflicts a mortal wound upon another and the latter dies, the intent to kill being presumed. This is because under the RPC, he is liable for the resulting felony although it be different from that which he intended. However, the accused is entitled to the mitigating circumstance of no intent to commit so grave a wrong.

 Here, Macho caused the death of Ganda although he did not intend to kill the latter. Hence, Macho is criminally liable for Homicide mitigated by no intent to commit so grave a wrong.



 City Engr. A, is the city engineer and the Chairman of the Bids and Awards Committee (BAC) of the City of Kawawa. In 2009, the City of Kawawa, through an ordinance, allotted the amount of P100 million for the construction of a road leading to the poblacion. City Engr. A instead, diverted the construction of the road leading to his farm. Investigation further showed that he accepted money in the amount of P10 million each from three (3) contending bidders, who eventually lost in the bidding.

 Audit report likewise showed that service vehicles valued at P2 million could not be accounted for although reports showed that these were lent to City Engr. A’s authorized drivers but the same were never returned. Further, there were funds under City Engr. A’s custody amounting to P10 million which were found to be missing and could not be accounted for. In another project, he was instrumental in awarding a contract for the construction of a city school building costing P10 million to a close relative, although the lowest bid was P8 million. Investigation also revealed that City Engr. A has a net worth of more than P50 million, which was way beyond his legitimate income. (8%)

 (A) If you are the Ombudsman, what charge or charges will you file against City Engr. A?

 I will charge City Engr. A with Plunder.

 Under the Anti-Plunder Law, any person who acquires ill-gotten wealth through a combination or series of overt acts of receiving directly or indirectly kickbacks or any other form of pecuniary benefit from any person or entity in connection with any government contract or project or by reason of the position of the public officer, in the aggregate amount of P50 million pesos shall be guilty of the crime of Plunder.

 Here, City Engr. A is a public officer who has acquired an aggregate amount of P50 million pesos which is deemed to be ill-gotten wealth. Hence, City Engr. A should be charged with the crime of Plunder before the Office of the Ombudsman.

 (B) Suppose the discovered net worth of City Engr. A is less than P50 million, will your answer still be the same?

 No, the answer will not be the same. City Engr. A will be charged with Malversation and violation of RA 3019 (Graft and Corruption).

Under the Revised Penal Code, Malversation is committed when a public officer, by reason of the duties of his office, appropriates, misappropriates, or takes public funds of not more than P12,000. In addition to such crime, the public officer shall be criminally liable under RA 3019 for unexplained wealth manifestly out of proportion to his salary and other lawful income.

 Here, City Engr. A is a public officer who appropriated or took public funds of more than P12,000, as well as acquired unexplained wealth manifestly out of proportion to his salary and other lawful income. Hence, City Engr. A should be charged with malversation and violation of RA 3019.



 Madam X, a bank teller, received from depositor Madam Y a check payable to cash in the amount of P1 million, to be deposited to the account of Madam Y. Because the check was not a crossed check, Madam X credited the amount to the account of her good friend, Madam W, by accomplishing a deposit slip. Seven (7) days after, Madam X contacted her good friend, Madam W and told her that the amount of P1 million was wrongfully credited to Madam W, thus, Madam X urged Madam W to withdraw the amount of P1 million from her account and to turn over the same to Madam X. As a dutiful friend, Madam W readily acceded. She was gifted by Madam X with an expensive Hermes bag after the withdrawal of the amount. What crime/s, if any, did Madam X and Madam W commit? Explain. (5%)

 Madam X did commit the crime of Estafa, while Madam W did not commit any crime.

 Under the Revised Penal Code, any person who defrauds another by misappropriating or converting money received in trust is guilty of the crime of Estafa. On the other hand, Fencing is committed by any person who, with intent to gain, buys, sells, receives of possesses any item which he knows or should have known to have been derived  from robbery or theft.

 Here, Madam X defrauded Madam Y when Madam X misappropriated or converted the money she received in trust from Madam Y. Hence, Madam X did commit the crime of Estafa. On the other hand, Madam W did not commit the crime of Fencing since neither did she have the intent to gain nor was the bag derived from robbery or theft.



 Congress passed a law reviving the Anti-Subversion Law, making it a criminal offense again for a person to join the Communist Party of the Philippines. Reporma, a former high-ranking member of the Communist Party, was charged under the new law for his membership in the Communist Party when he was a student in the 80’s. He now challenges the charge against him. What objections may he raise? (3%)

Reporma may raise the objection of violation of the doctrine of irretrospectivity of penal laws.

Well-settled is the doctrine of irretrospectivity in Criminal Law which states that no felonious act shall be punished by any penalty prescribed by law when it was committed prior to its enactment. Article 21 of the Revised Penal Code provides that no felony shall be punishable by any penalty not prescribed by law prior to its commission.

 Here, the felonious act imputed was committed prior to the revival of the Anti-Subversion Law. Hence, Reporma can object to the charge on the ground of irretrospectivity of penal laws.


 A was caught peeping through a small hole in the bathroom door while a young 16-year-old lady was taking a bath. A is liable for: (1%)

 (A) Violation of R.A. 9262 or Violence Against Women and their Children

(B) Violation of R.A. 7610 – Child Abuse Law

(C) Light coercion

(D) Acts of lasciviousness




 Filthy, a very rich businessman, convinced Loko, a clerk of court, to issue an order of release for Takas, Filthy’s cousin, who was in jail for a drug charge. After receiving P500,000.00, Loko forged the signature of the judge on the order of release and accompanied Filthy to the detention center. At the jail, Loko gave the guard P10,000.00 to open the gate and let Takas out.

 What crime or crimes did Filthy, Loko, and the guard commit? (4%)

 Filthy, Loko, and the guard did commit the crimes of Corruption of Public Official, Direct Bribery and Falsification, and Delivering Prisoner from Jail, respectively.

 Under the Revised Penal Code, Corruption of Public Officials (Art. 212) is committed by any person who offers or gives gift to a public officer in consideration of the performance by the latter of an act constituting the crime of Direct or Indirect Bribery. Direct Bribery (Art. 210) is committed by a public officer by agreeing to perform an act constituting a crime in consideration of an offer, promise, or gift. On the other hand, Falsification (Art. 171) is committed by a public officer who, taking advantage of his position, falsifies a document by imitating a signature of another. Finally, Delivering Prisoners from Jail (Art. 156) is committed by any person who shall facilitate or help the escape of a prisoner from jail by means of bribery.

 Here, Filthy gave money to Loko, a public officer, who in return agreed to perform an act constituting a crime. Loko did perform the agreed act, and as means thereto falsified a document by imitating a signature. The guard took a bribery in exchange of helping or facilitating the escape of a prisoner from jail.

 Hence, Filthy committed the crime of Corruption of Public Official; Loko committed Direct Bribery and Falsification, while the guard committed the crime of Delivering a Prisoner from Jail.



 Pretty was a campus beauty queen who, because of her looks and charms, attracted many suitors. Having decided that she would become a nun, Pretty turned down all her suitors. Guapo, one of her most persistent suitors, could not handle rejection and one night, decided to accost Pretty as she walked home. Together with Pogi, Guapo forced Pretty into his car and drove her to an abandoned warehouse where he and Pogi forced Pretty to dance for them. Later, the two took turns in raping her. After satisfying their lusts, Guapo and Pogi dropped her off at her house. (4%)

 (A) What crime or crimes did Guapo and Pogi commit?

 Guapo and Pogi committed Forcible Abduction with Rape, and Unjust Vexation.

 Under the Revised Penal Code, the complex crime of Forcible Abduction with Rape is committed when a man, with lewd design, deprives a woman of her liberty and eventually has carnal knowledge with her through force or intimidation. On the other hand, Unjust Vexation is any act committed without violence but which unjustifiably annoys or vexes another person.

 Here, Guapo and Pogi, with lewd designs, deprived Pretty of her liberty, forced her to dance, and eventually had carnal knowledge with her without her consent. Hence, Guapo and Pogi committed the complex crime of Forcible Abduction with Rape, as well as Unjust Vexation.

 (B) Pretty, after the ordeal, decided to take her own life by hanging herself one hour after the rape. Would Guapo and Pogi be liable for Pretty’s death? Explain.

 Yes, Guapo and Pogi would be liable for Pretty’s death.

 Settled is the doctrine in Criminal Law that he whose felonious act is the proximate cause of the death of another person is criminally liable, such as when a man who causes upon another’s mind a great anguish and embarrassment is responsible for the direct, natural and logical consequence of such anguish and embarrassment. El que es causa dela causa es causa del mal causado.

 Here, the suicide committed by Pretty would be the direct, natural, and logical consequence of the anguish and embarrassment proximately caused by the felonious acts of Guapo and Pogi. Hence, Guapo and Pogi would be liable for Pretty’s death.



 A, B, and C agreed to rob the house of Mr. D at 10 o’clock in the evening, with C as the driver of the tricycle which they would use in going to and leaving the house of Mr. D, and A and B as the ones who would enter the house to get the valuables of Mr. D. As planned, C parked the tricycle in a dark place, while A and B entered the house thru an open door. Once inside, A entered the master’s bedroom and started getting all the valuables he could see, while B entered another room. While inside the room, B saw a male person and immediately B brought out his gun but he accidentally pulled its trigger. The bullet went through the window, hitting a neighbor that killed him. Neighbors were then awakened by the gunfire and policemen were alerted. Not long after, policemen arrived. A and B panicked and got hold of a young boy and shouted to the policemen who were already outside of the house that they would harm the boy if the policemen did not disperse. A and B demanded that they should be allowed to use a vehicle to bring them to a certain place and that would be the time that they would release the young boy. The policemen acceded. In the meantime, C was arrested by the policemen while he was about to flee, while A and B, after releasing the young boy, were arrested.

 What crime/s did A, B, and C commit, and what modifying circumstances attended the commission of the crime/s? (6%)

 A, B, and C committed the special complex crime of Robbery with Homicide, as well as Grave Theat.

 Under the Revised Penal Code (Art. 294), the special complex crime of Robbery with Homicide is committed when a person or persons, with intent to gain, shall take any personal property belonging to another, and on the occasion thereof shall kill another. On the other hand, Grave Threat (Art. 282) is committed by any person who shall threaten another with the infliction of any wrong amounting to a crime.  Jurisprudence states that whenever Homicide is committed as a consequence of a robbery, all those who participated in the commission of robbery are also guilty as principals in the crime of robbery with homicide even if they only participated in the robbery as a lookout, unless it appears that they sought to prevent the killing.

 Here, A, B, and C had conspired to commit robbery, which A and b actually executed, and as a consequence killed a neighbor and threatened to inflict harm upon a child, while C served as a lookout but did not seek to prevent the killing. Hence, A, B, and C are liable for the special complex crime of Robbery with Homicide, and Grave Threat. Nighttime attended the commission of the crime as aggravating circumstance.



 Loko advertised on the internet that he was looking for commercial models for a TV advertisement. Ganda, a 16-year-old beauty, applied for the project. Loko offered her a contract, which Ganda signed. She was asked to report to an address which turned out to be a high-end brothel. Ganda became one of its most featured attraction. What is Loko’s liability, if any? What effect would Ganda’s minority have on Loko’s liability? (4%)

 Loko is liable for Qualified Trafficking of Person.

 Under RA 9208, Trafficking of Persons is committed by recruitment of persons through fraud or deception for the purpose of prostitution or sexual exploitation. The crime is qualified when the person recruited for sexual exploitation is a child.

 Here, Loko recruited Ganda, a child, through deception for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Hence, Loko is criminally liable for Qualified Trafficking of Persons.



 A, in a public place, fired his gun at B with the intention of killing B, but the gun did not fire because the bullet is a dud. The crime is: (1%)

 (A) attempted homicide

(B) grave threat

(C) impossible crime

(D) alarm and scandal




 Sexy boarded a taxi on her way home from a party. Because she was already tipsy, she fell asleep. Pogi, the taxi driver, decided to take advantage of the situation and drove Sexy to a deserted place where he raped her for a period of two (2) weeks. What crime did Pogi commit? (4%)

 Pogi committed the special complex crime of Kidnapping and Illegal Serious Detention with Rape.

 Under the Revised Penal Code (Art. 297), the special complex crime of Kidnapping and Illegal Serious Detention with Rape is committed when a person carries away by force another person, deprives her of her liberty for more than three days, and in the process have carnal knowledge with her against her will. Settled is the rule that a special complex crime is committed when the law provides a single penalty for two or more component offenses, and there is only one special complex crime no matter how many rapes had been committed.

 Hence, Pogi is criminally liable for Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention with Rape.



 Puti detested Pula, his roommate, because Pula was courting Ganda, whom Puti fancied. One day, Puti decided to teach Pula a lesson and went to a veterinarian (Vet) to ask for poison on the pretext that he was going to kill a sick pet, when actually Puti was intending to poison Pula. The Vet instantly gave Puti a non-toxic solution which, when mixed with Pula’s food, did not kill Pula. (4%)

 (A) What crime, if any, did Puti commit?

 Puti committed an Impossible Crime.

 Under Article 4 of the Revised Penal Code, a person is liable for an Impossible Crime by performing an act which would be an offense against persons or property, were it not for the inherent impossibility of its accomplishment or on account of the employment of inadequate or ineffectual means.

 Here, Puti would have committed the crime of Murder, an offense against persons, when with intent to kill and evident premeditation he executed the act of poisoning Pula had it not for the employment of ineffectual means. Hence, Puti is liable for Impossible Crime.

 (B) Would your answer be the same if, as a result of the mixture, Pula got an upset stomach and had to be hospitalized for 10 days?

 No, the answer would be different. Puti would be liable for the crime of Less Serious Physical Injuries.

 Under the Revised Penal Code (Art. 265), any person who inflicts upon another physical injuries that require medical attendance for ten days shall be guilty of Less Serious Physical Injuries.

 Hence, if due to the non-toxic solution Puti gave to Pula the latter got upset stomach that required medical attendance for ten days, Puti would be liable for Less Serious Physical Injuries.



 Malo, a clerk of court of a trial court, promised the accused in a drug case pending before the court, that he would convince the judge to acquit him for a consideration of P5 million. The accused agreed and delivered the money, through his lawyer, to the clerk of court.

The judge, not knowing of the deal, proceeded to rule on the evidence and convicted the accused. (4%)

 (A) Malo was charged with violation of Section 3(b), Republic Act (R.A.) No. 3019, which prohibits a public officer from directly or indirectly requesting or receiving any gift, present, share percentage or benefit wherein the public officer, in his official capacity, has to intervene under the law. He was later charged also with indirect bribery under the Revised Penal Code. Malo claims he can no longer be charged under the Revised Penal Code for the same act under R.A. 3019. Is he correct?

 No, Malo is not correct.

 Settled is the doctrine in Criminal Law that when a single act produces two or more offenses, one under the Revised Penal Code and the other under a special law, the offender shall be criminally liable for two separate crimes, unless one absorbs the other.

 Here, Malo committed an act under RA 3019 by receiving gift or benefit from another person in consideration of the performance of an act constituting a crime, the same felonious act being punished under the Revised Penal Code as Direct Bribery (Art. 210). Hence, notwithstanding the charge under RA 3019, Malo can still be charged under the Revised Penal Code for Direct Bribery.

 (B) Malo was charged with estafa under Article 315 because he misrepresented that he had influence, when he actually had none. Is the charge correct?

Yes, the charge of Estafa under Art. 315 of the Revised Penal Code (RPC) is correct.

 Estafa under Art. 315 of the RPC is committed by any person who defrauds another by falsely pretending that he possesses power or influence.

 Hence, the charge of Estafa under Art. 315 of the RPC is correct since Malo defrauded the accused by falsely pretending that he possessed the power to influence the decision of the judge.



 Which of the following is not a privilege mitigating circumstance? (1%)

 (A) 17-year-old offender

(B) 14-year-old offender

(C) incomplete self-defense

(D) incomplete defense of a relative




 Mr. Benjie is the owner of a hardware store specializing in the sale of plumbing materials. On February 1, 2014, Mr. Ed, a friend and regular customer of Mr. Benjie, visited the hardware store and purchased several plumbing materials in the total amount of P5 million. Mr. Benjie readily accepted Mr. Ed’s payment of three (3) postdated checks in the amount of P1 million Pesos each in view of the assurance of Mr. Ed that the checks will be honored upon presentment for payment. Mr. Benjie, as a consequence, immediately delivered the materials to the house of Mr. Ed.

The following day, Mr. Ed went back to Mr. Benjie to tender another two (2) postdated checks in the amount of P1 million each to complete the payment, with the same assurance that the checks  will be honored upon presentment for payment. When the checks were presented for payment, all were dishonored for insufficiency of funds and corresponding notices of dishonor were sent and received by Mr. Ed. One month after receipt of the notices of dishonor, Mr. Ed failed to make good the checks. Thereafter, Mr. Benjie filed before the public prosecutor’s office a complaint against Mr. Ed, although no demand letter was earlier sent to Mr. Ed.

 During the preliminary investigation, Mr. Benjie accepted several amounts from Mr. Ed as partial payments. The wife of Mr. Benjie protested and insisted that the complaint should continue despite the partial payments. On the other hand, Mr. Ed counters that no demand letter was earlier sent to him, that the obligation is merely civil in character and that novation took place when Mr. Benjie accepted the partial payments. Discuss the criminal liability, if any, of Mr. Ed. (6%)

 Mr. Ed is criminally liable for Estafa under BP No. 22.

 Well-settled is the rule that Estafa under BP No. 22 is committed when the accused issues a check without sufficient funds and he fails to deposit the amount in the check within five days after receipt of the notice of dishonor of the check by the bank. Moreover, novation is not among the modes of extinguishing criminal liability for violation of BP No. 22.

 Hence, the mere issuance by Mr. Ed of checks without sufficient funds his failure to deposit with the bank the amount in the checks within five days after receipt of the notice of dishonor makes him criminally liable for Estafa under BP 22. Neither is novation nor absence of demand letter a defense against criminal liability under BP 22 insofar as the notice of dishonor serves as demand for payment.



 Pierce is a French diplomat stationed in the Philippines. While on EDSA and driving with an expired license, he hit a pedestrian who was crossing illegally. The pedestrian died. Pierce was charged with reckless imprudence resulting in homicide. In his defense, he claimed diplomatic immunity. Is Pierce correct? (3%)

No, Pierce is not correct.

It is a fundamental doctrine in Criminal Law, and applying the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, that diplomatic immunity applies only to acts performed by officials or their agents in connection with their official diplomatic functions.

Here, Pierce’s culpable act that constituted the crime of Reckless Imprudence Resulting in Homicide had no connection to his official diplomatic functions. Hence, Pierce’s defense of diplomatic immunity is not correct.


 Manolo, an avid art collector, was invited to Tonio’s house. There, Manolo noticed a nice painting that exactly looked like the painting which he reported was stolen from him some years back. Manolo confronted Tonio about the painting, but Tonio denied any knowledge, claiming that he bought the painting legitimately from a friend. Manolo later proved to Tonio that the painting was indeed the stolen painting. (4%)

 (A) What crime/s, if any, may Tonio be charged with?

Tonio may be charged with Fencing.

 Under RA 8049, Fencing is committed by any person who buys or acquires any article or anything of value which he knows or should be known to him to have been derived from the proceeds of theft. The mere possession of anything of value stolen is a prima facie evidence of fencing.

 Here, Tonio bought a painting which he should have known to have been derived from the proceeds of theft. Hence, Tonio may be charged with Fencing since his mere possession of the painting is a prima facie evidence of the crime.

 (B) Manolo decided to take matters into his own hands and, one night, broke into Tonio’s house by destroying the wall and taking the painting. What, if any, would be the liability of Manolo?

 Manolo would be liable for Robbery.

 Under the Revised Penal Code (Art. 293), Robbery is committed when a person, with intent to gain, takes any personal property belonging to another by means of force upon things.

 Here, Tonio already owned the painting through sale, and Manolo with intent to gain would take the painting through force upon the wall. Hence, Manolo would be liable for Robbery.



 Clepto went alone to a high-end busy shop and decided to take one of the smaller purses without paying for it. Overcame by conscience, she decided to leave her own purse in place of the one she took. Her act was discovered and Clepto was charged with theft. She claimed that there was

no theft, as the store suffered no injury or prejudice because she had left a purse in place of the one she took. Comment on her defense. (3%)

 Clepto’s defense has no merit.

 Under the Revised Penal Code (Art. 308), Theft is committed when a person with intent to gain takes a personal property belonging to another without violence or intimidation and without the consent of the owner. Jurisprudence holds that mere taking of the personal property consummates the crime of Theft, so that when taking is complete the defense of desistance does not set in anymore.

 Hence, regardless of the fact that Clepto replaced the purse she took with her own, Theft was already consummated, and desistance no longer sets in as a defense.



 Which of the following is not a qualifying aggravating circumstance? (1%)

 (A) treachery

(B) evident premeditation

(C) dwelling

(D) cruelty




 During trial for theft in 2014, the prosecution managed to show that accused AA has also been convicted by final judgment for robbery in 2003, but she eluded capture. A subsequent verification showed that AA had several convictions, to wit:

 (1.) In 1998, she was convicted of estafa;

(2.) In 2002, she was convicted of theft;

(3.) In 2004, she was convicted of frustrated homicide;

 The judge trying the theft case in 2014 is about to convict AA. What circumstances affecting the liability or penalty may the judge appreciate against AA? (4%)

 The judge may appreciate the aggravating circumstance of a recidivist.

 Under the Revised Penal Code (Art. 14), a recidivist is one who, at the time of trial for a crime, he has been previously convicted by final judgment of another crime embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code where the current crime on trial is found.

 Here, during the trial for Theft, AA had been previously convicted by final judgment for the crime of Robbery, both crimes being embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code. Hence, the judge can only appreciate the aggravating circumstance of a recidivist.



Mr. Red was drinking with his buddies, Mr. White and Mr. Blue when he saw Mr. Green with his former girlfriend, Ms. Yellow. Already drunk, Mr. Red declared in a loud voice that if he could not have Ms. Yellow, no one can. He then proceeded to the men’s room but told Mr. White and Mr. Blue to take care of Mr. Green. Mr. Blue and Mr. White asked Mr. Red what he meant but Mr. Red simply said, “You already know what I want,” and then left. Mr. Blue and Mr. White proceeded to kill Mr. Green and hurt Ms. Yellow. (4%)

 (A) What, if any, are the respective liabilities of Mr. Red, Mr. White and Mr. Blue for the death of Mr. Green?

 Mr. White and Mr. Blueare criminally liable for Murder for killing Mr. Green.

 Under the Revised Penal Code, any person who kills another shall be criminally liable for Murder. Jurisprudence holds that for an accused to be liable as principal by inducement, the inducement must be expressed in clear unequivocal language, strong enough as an irresistible force.

 Hence, only Mr. White and Mr. Blue can be held criminally liable for Murder for killing Mr. Green, while Mr. Red cannot be held liable even as a principal by inducement since his statement cannot be considered as inducement insofar as it is not strong enough as an irresistible force.

 (B) What, if any, are the respective liabilities of Mr. Red, Mr. Whit and Mr. Blue for the injuries of Ms. Yellow?

Similarly, Mr. White and Mr. Blue are criminally liable for Serious, Less Serious, or Slight Physical Injuries for the injuries they inflicted upon Ms. Yellow. On the other hand, Mr. Red has no criminal liability.

Under the Revised Penal Code, any person who shall wound, beat, or assault another that requires medical attention, or becomes ill or incapacitated is liable for Serious Physical Injuries if the medication, illness or incapacity is for more than 30 days, Less Serious Physical Injuries if the medication, illness or incapacity is for ten days or more, or for Slight Physical Injuries if the medication, illness or incapacity lasts for one to nine days. On the other hand, a person who has no participation in the planning of or in the actual beating or assault shall not have any criminal liability.

Hence, only Mr. White and Mr. Blue shall be criminally liable for Serious, Less Serious, or slight Physical Injuries, depending on the gravity or duration of illness, incapacity or medication caused upon Ms. Yellow, while Mr. Red cannot be held criminally liable.



Carla, four (4) years old, was kidnapped by Enrique, the tricycle driver engaged by her parents to drive her to and from school every day. Enrique wrote a ransom note demanding that Carla’s parents pay him P500,000.00 ransom in exchange for her liberty. However, before the ransom note could be received by Carla’s parents, Enrique’s hideout was discovered by the police. Carla was rescued while Enrique was arrested.  The prosecutor considered that the ransom note was never received by Carla’s parents and filed a case of “Impossible crime to commit kidnapping” against Enrique. Is the prosecutor correct? If he is not correct, can he instead file a case of grave coercion? (4%)

No, the prosecution is not correct for both impossible nor grave coercion.

Jurisprudence applying the second paragraph of Article 4 of the Revised Penal Code has held that, Impossible Crime would only be considered as a last resort if no crime against person or property or any other felony applies to the act committed. When  person deprives a child of his liberty, the crime committed is Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention qualified by minority.

Hence, Impossible Crime nor Grave Coercion shall not be considered insofar as the correct crime committed was Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention qualified by minority.



A, a young boy aged sixteen (16) at the time of the commission of the crime, was convicted when he was already seventeen (17) years of age for violation of Section 11 of R.A. 9165 or Illegal Possession of Dangerous Drugs for which the imposable penalty is life imprisonment and a fine. Section 98 of the same law provides that if the penalty imposed is life imprisonment to death on minor offenders, the penalty shall be reclusion perpetua to death. Under R.A. 9344, a minor offender is entitled to a privilege mitigating circumstance. (8%)

(A) May the privilege mitigating circumstance of minority be appreciated considering that the penalty imposed by law is life imprisonment and fine?

Yes, the privilege of mitigating circumstance of minority may be appreciated.

 By express provision of Sec. 98 of RA 9165, notwithstanding any law, the provisions of the Revised Penal Code shall not apply to the provisions of RA 9165, except in the case of minor offenders. Where the offender is a minor, the penalty for acts punishable by life imprisonment to death shall be reclusion perpetua. Under RA 9344, the privileged mitigating circumstance of minority shall be considered for the purpose of recommending the amount of bail.

 Hence, the privileged mitigating circumstance of minority may be appreciated for the purpose of recommending the amount of bail.

 (B) Is the Indeterminate Sentence Law applicable considering that life imprisonment has no fixed duration and the Dangerous Drugs Law is malum prohibitum?

 Yes, the Indeterminate Sentence Law is applicable.

 Settled is the rule that by virtue of Sec. 98 of RA 9165, where the offender is a minor, the penalty for acts punishable by life imprisonment to death shall be reclusion perpetua to death, an indivisible penalty. The Indeterminate Sentence Law applies only to divisible penalties of more than one (1) year of imprisonment. Considering the privileged mitigating circumstance of minority, the penalty shall be one degree lower than reclusion perpetua, which shall be reclusion temporal, a divisible penalty.

 Thus, the Indeterminate Sentence Law is applicable because the penalty which has been indivisible became a divisible penalty of more than one year after appreciating the privilege mitigating circumstance of minority.

 (C) If the penalty imposed is more than six (6) years and a notice of appeal was filed by A and given due course by the court, may A still file an application for probation?

 No, A may not file an application for Probation.

 By express provision of the Probation Law (PD 968), where the imposed penalty is imprisonment of more than six years, the convict shall not be entitled to probation. Similarly, the Probation Law provides that appeal and probation are mutually exclusive, so that once an appeal has filed, the privilege of probation is no longer available unless the convict withdraws the appeal.

 Hence, A may not file an application for Probation insofar as the imposed penalty is imprisonment of more than six years.

 (D) If probation is not allowed by the court, how will A serve his sentence?

 Pursuant to RA 9344, the sentence for A shall be automatically suspended and the court shall determine the disposition measures under the Implementing Rules of 9344.


 Mr. Gray opened a savings account with Bank A with an initial deposit of P50,000.00. A few days later, he deposited a check for P200,000.00 drawn from Bank B and endorsed by Mr. White. Ten days later, Mr. Gray withdrew the P200,000.00 from his account. Mr. White later complained to Bank B when the amount of P200,000.00 was later debited to his account, as he did not issue the check and his signature thereon was forged. Mr. Gray subsequently deposited another check signed by Mr. White for P200,000.00, which amount he later withdrew. Upon receiving the amount, Mr. Gray was arrested by agents of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI).

 Mr. Gray was convicted of estafa and attempted estafa, both through the use of commercial documents. (4%)

 (A) Mr. Gray claims as defense that, except for Mr. White’s claim of forgery, there was no evidence showing that he was the author of the forgery and Mr. White did not suffer any injuries as to the second check (attempted estafa). Rule on the defense of Mr. Gray.

 The defense is without merit.

 Settled is the rule in Estafa cases that the disturbance of property right is equivalent to damage and is in itself sufficient to constitute injury within the meaning of Art. 315 of the Revised Penal Code.

 Here, Mr. White suffered injury when his signature was forged and his money parted from him on account of the forgery that is attributable to the bearer of the check, Mr. Gray. Hence, Mr. Gray’s defense must fail.

 (B) Mr. Gray claims that he was entrapped illegally because there was no showing that the second check was a forgery and, therefore, his withdrawal based on the second check was a legal act. Is Mr. Gray correct?



A was bitten by a dog owned by a neighbor. The following day, angered by the incident, A took the dog without the knowledge of the owner, had it butchered and cooked the meat. He then invited his friends to partake of the dish with his friends who knew fully well that the dog was taken without the knowledge of the owner. What are the friends of A liable for? (1%)

 (A) Theft

(B) Malicious mischief

(C) Accessories

(D) Obstruction of Justice



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | October 28, 2014

2014 BAR EXAMS: Questions and Alternative Answers in Remedial Law



 Ludong, Balatong, and Labong were charged with murder. After trial, the court announced that the case was considered submitted for decision. Subsequently, the Clerk of Court issued the notices of promulgation of judgment which were duly received. On promulgation day, Ludong and his lawyer appeared. The lawyers of Balatong and Labong appeared but without their clients and failed to satisfactorily explain their absence when queried by the court. Thus, the judge ordered the Clerk of Court to proceed with the reading of the judgment convicting all the accused. With respect to Balatong and Labong, the judge ordered that the judgment be entered in the criminal docket and copies be furnished their lawyers. The lawyers of Ludong, Balatong, and Labong filed within the reglementary period a Joint Motion for Reconsideration. The court favorably granted the motion of Ludong downgrading his conviction from murder to homicide but denied the motion as regards Balatong and Labong. (4%)

(A) Was the court correct in taking cognizance of the Joint Motion for Reconsideration?

                No, the court was not correct in taking cognizance of the Joint Motion for Reconsideration.

                Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure, if the judgment is for conviction and the failure of the accused to appear was without justifiable cause, the accused shall lose the available remedies. However, the accused may surrender within 15 days from promulgation of the judgment and file a motion for leave of court to avail of the remedies.

                Here, Balatong and Labong neither appeared during the promulgation of their judgment, presented a justifiable cause nor surrender within the 15-day period, losing all the available remedies provided in the Rules. Hence, the court has exceeded its jurisdiction when it allowed the Joint Motion for Reconsideration.

 (B) Can Balatong and Labong appeal their conviction in case Ludong accepts his conviction for homicide?

                 No, Balatong and Labong cannot appeal their conviction in case Ludong accepts his conviction.

                Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure, when an accused fails to appear during the promulgation of the judgment of conviction without justifiable cause, he loses all available remedies in the Rules including the remedy of appeal.

                Hence, Balatong and Labong are not allowed by the Rules to appeal their conviction.



 McJolly is a trouble-maker of sorts, always getting into brushes with the law. In one incident, he drove his Humvee recklessly, hitting a pedicab which sent its river and passengers in different directions. The pedicab driver died, while two (2) of the passengers suffered slight physical injuries. Two (2) Informations were then filed against McJolly. One, for Reckless Imprudence Resulting in Homicide and Damage to Property, and two, for Reckless Imprudence Resulting in Slight Physical Injuries. The latter case was scheduled for arraignment earlier, on which occasion McJolly immediately pleaded guilty. He was meted out the penalty of public censure. A month later, the case for reckless imprudence resulting in homicide was also set for arraignment. Instead of pleading, McJolly interposed the defense of double jeopardy. Resolve. (4%)

                 McJolly may not quash the information on the ground of double jeopardy.

            Settled is the doctrine that prior conviction or acquittal of reckless imprudence bars the subsequent prosecution for the same quasi-offense regardless of its various resulting acts; otherwise, prosecution of the second quasi-offense would place the accused in double jeopardy. In such a case, the accused may move to quash the information for the second quasi-offense.

                Hence, McJolly may move to quash the information for Reckless Imprudence Resulting in Homicide on the ground of double jeopardy.



 While passing by a dark uninhabited part of their barangay, PO2 Asintado observed shadows and heard screams from a distance. PO2 Asintado hid himself behind the bushes and saw a man beating a woman whom he recognized as his neighbor, Kulasa. When Kulasa was already in agony, the man stabbed her and she fell on the ground. The man hurriedly left thereafter.

 PO2 Asintado immediately went to Kulasa’s rescue. Kulasa, who was then in a state of hysteria, kept mentioning to PO2 Asintado Si Rene, gusto akong patayin! Sinaksak niya ako!” When PO2 Asintado was about to carry her, Kulasa refused and said “Kaya ko. Mababaw lang to. Habulin mo si Rene.”

 The following day, Rene learned of Kulasa’s death and, bothered by his  conscience, surrendered to the authorities with his counsel. As his surrender was broadcasted all over media, Rene opted to release his statement to the press which goes:

 “I believe that I am entitled to the presumption of innocence until my guilt is proven  beyond reasonable doubt. Although I admit that I performed acts that may take one’s life away, I hope and pray that justice will be served the right way. God bless us all. (Sgd.) Rene”

 The trial court convicted Rene of homicide on the basis of PO2 Asintado’s testimony, Kulasa’s statements, and Rene’s statement to the press. On appeal, Rene raises the following errors:

 1. The trial court erred in giving weight to PO2 Asintado’s testimony, as the latter did not have any personal knowledge of the facts in issue, and violated Rene’s right to due process when it considered Kulasa’s statements despite lack of opportunity for her cross-examination.

2. The trial court erred in holding that Rene’s statement to the press was a confession which, standing alone, would be sufficient to warrant conviction. Resolve. (4%)

                 Rene’s contentions have no legs to stand on.

               Under the Rules of Evidence, testimonies based on personal knowledge and part of res gestae are given probative value to convict the accused. Personal knowledge pertains to a witness’ testimony derived from is own perception of the criminal acts, while part of res gestae whish is an exception to the hearsay rule pertains to a statement made by a victim before, during or immediately after the commission of a crime by the accused. On the other hand, confessions to be taken as mitigating circumstance must be made with the acknowledgment of the confessant’s guilt.

                Here, PO2 Asintado’s testimonies were based on personal knowledge as well as a part of res gestae, hence sufficient to convict Rene. On the other hand, the press release cannot be considered as a confession absent Rene’s acknowledgment of guilt. Hence, Rene’s contentions should be denied.



 An order of the court requiring a retroactive re-dating of an order, judgment or document filing be entered or recorded in a judgment is: (1%)

 (A) pro hac vice

(B) non pro tunc

(C) confession relicta verificatione

(D) nolle prosequi



 Landlord, a resident of Quezon City, entered into a lease contract with Tenant, a resident of Marikina City, over a residential house in Las Piñas City. The lease contract provided, among others, for a monthly rental of P25,000.00, plus ten percent (10%) interest rate in case of non-payment on its due date. Subsequently, Landlord migrated to the United States of America (USA) but granted in favor of his sister Maria, a special power of attorney to manage the property and file and defend suits over the property rented out to Tenant. Tenant failed to pay the rentals due for five (5) months.

 Maria asks your legal advice on how she can expeditiously collect from Tenant the unpaid rentals plus interests due. (6%)

 (A) What judicial remedy would you recommend to Maria?

                 Pursuant to the Rules on Civil Procedure, I would recommend to Maria to send the Tenant a demand for the payment of the rentals plus interests, then file for an Unlawful Detainer five days from the Tenant’s receipt of the demand and failure to make a payment.

(B) Where is the proper venue of the judicial remedy which you recommended?

                 Applying the Rules of Ejectment to this case, the complaint for Unlawful Detainer shall be filed before the Municipal Trail Court (MTC) where the real property involved is situated, hence in Las Pinas City.

 (C) If Maria insists on filing an ejectment suit against Tenant, when do you reckon the one (1)-year period within which to file the action?

                 Under Rule 70 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, the one-year period is reckoned from the date of demand and failure to make a payment.



 As a rule, courts may not grant an application for provisional remedy without complying with the requirements of notice and hearing. These requirements, however, may be dispensed with in an application for: (1%)

 (A) writ of preliminary injunction

(B) writ for preliminary attachment

(C) an order granting support pendente lite

(D) a writ of replevin



 Co Batong, a Taipan, filed a civil action for damages with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Parañaque City against Jose Penduko, a news reporter of the Philippine Times, a newspaper of general circulation printed and published in Parañaque City. The complaint alleged, among others, that Jose Penduko wrote malicious and defamatory imputations against Co Batong; that Co Batong’s business address is in Makati City; and that the libelous article was first printed and published in Parañaque City. The complaint prayed that Jose Penduko be held liable to pay P200,000.00, as moral damages; P150,000.00, as exemplary damages; and P50,000.00, as attorney’s fees.

 Jose Penduko filed a Motion to Dismiss on the following grounds:

 1. The RTC is without jurisdiction because under the Totality Rule, the claim for damages in the amount of P350,000.00 fall within the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Trial Court (MeTC) of Parañaque City.

2. The venue is improperly laid because what the complaint alleged is Co Batong’s business address and not his residence address.

 Are the grounds invoked in the Motion to Dismiss proper? (4%)

                 No, the grounds of lack of jurisdiction and improper venue invoked in the Motion to Dismiss are not proper.

                Settled is the rule that in cases where the claim for damages is the main action, the claim comprises all kinds of damages, including attorney’s fees. On the other hand, the venue for the complaint for damages arising from Libel is the RTC of the province where the libelous material was published.

                Here, the total jurisdictional amount of claim for damages including attorney’s fees falls within the jurisdiction of the RTC, and the libelous material was published in Paranaque City. Hence, the case was properly filed in the RTC of Paranaque City.



 Johnny, a naturalized citizen of the United States of America (USA) but formerly a Filipino citizen, executed a notarial will in accordance with the laws of the State of California, USA. Johnny, at the time of his death, was survived by his niece Anastacia, an American citizen residing at the condominium unit of Johnny located at Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City; a younger brother, Bartolome, who manages Johnny’s fish pond in Lingayen, Pangasinan; and a younger sister, Christina, who manages Johnny’s rental condominium units in Makati City. Johnny’s entire estate which he inherited from his parents is valued at P200 million. Johnny appointed Anastacia as executrix of his will. (4%)

 (A) Can Johnny’s notarial will be probated before the proper court in the Philippines?

                 Yes, Johnny’s notarial will can be probated before the proper court in the Philippines.

                Under the Ruled of Special Proceedings, a will of a non-resident alien who left an estate in the Philippines may be probated before the RTC of the province or city where the estate is located.

                Here, the testator Johnny was a non-resident alien who left some estates in the Taguig City, Makati City, and Pangasinan. Hence, his will can be probated before the RTC of any of these cities and province in the Philippines.

 (B) Is Anastacia qualified to be the executrix of Johnny’s notarial will?

                 Yes, Anastacia is qualified to be the executrix of Johnny’s notarial will.

                Under the Rules of Special Proceedings, any executor named in a will and who is not incompetent—minor, non-resident, or unfit to execute the trust—is qualified to serve as executor or executrix.

                Here, Anastaciais the person named in the will; she is not incompetent to serve. Hence, Anastacia is qualifieid to be the executrix of Johnny’s will.


 Bayani, an overseas worker based in Dubai, issued in favor of Agente, a special power of attorney to sell his house and lot. Agente was able to sell the property but failed to remit the proceeds to Bayani, as agreed upon. On his return to the Philippines, Bayani, by way of a demand letter duly received by Agente, sought to recover the amount due him. Agente failed to return the amount as he had used it for the construction of his own house. Thus, Bayani filed an action against Agente for sum of money with damages.  Bayani subsequently filed an ex-parte motion for the issuance of a writ of preliminary attachment duly supported by an affidavit. The court granted the ex-parte motion and issued a writ of preliminary attachment upon Bayani’s posting of the required bond. Bayani prayed that the court’s sheriff

be deputized to serve and implement the writ of attachment. On November 19, 2013, the Sheriff served upon Agente the writ of attachment and levied on the latter’s house and lot. On November 20, 2013, the Sheriff served on Agente summons and a copy of the complaint. On November 22, 2013, Agente filed an Answer with Motion to Discharge the Writ of Attachment alleging that at the time the writ of preliminary attachment was issued, he has not been served with summons and, therefore, it was improperly issued. (4%)

 (A) Is Agente correct?

                 Yes, Agente is correct in moving for the discharge of the writ of attachment.

               Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure, the party whose property has been ordered attached may file a motion to discharge the attachment on the ground that the writ was improperly enforced, such as when the rule on prior or contemporaneous service of summons was not observed.

        Here, the writ of attachment was enforced prior to instead of subsequent or contemporaneous with the service of summons upon the defendant Agente. Hence, the writ of attachment should be discharged on the ground of improper enforcement of the writ of attachment.

(B) Was the writ of preliminary attachment properly executed?

                 No, the writ of preliminary attachment was not properly executed.

              Pursuant to the Rules on Civil Procedure, no levy on attachment shall be enforced unless it is preceded or contemporaneous ly accompanied by service of summons together with a copy of the complaint.

                Here, the writ of preliminary attachment was served and levied prior to the service of summons with a copy of the complaint. Hence, the writ was improperly executed.



 Prince Chong entered into a lease contract with King Kong over a commercial building where the former conducted his hardware business. The lease contract stipulated, among others, a monthly rental of P50,000.00 for a four (4)-year period commencing on January 1, 2010. On January 1, 2013, Prince Chong died. Kin Il Chong was appointed administrator of the estate of Prince Chong, but the former failed to pay the rentals for the months of January to June 2013 despite King Kong’s written demands. Thus, on July 1, 2013, King Kong filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) an action for rescission of contract with damages and payment of accrued rentals as of June 30, 2013. (4%)

 (A) Can Kin Il Chong move to dismiss the complaint on the ground that the RTC is without jurisdiction since the amount claimed is only P300,000.00?

                No, Kin Il Chong cannot move to dismiss the complaint on the ground of lack of jurisdiction.

                Settled is the rule in Civil Procedure that an action for specific performance and damages is incapable of pecuniary estimation that falls under the jurisdiction of the RTC.

                Here, the action is for specific performance and damages which is incapable of pecuniary estimation. Thus, the complaint falls squarely within the jurisdiction of the RTC, rendering the motion to dismiss without merit.

(B) If the rentals accrued during the lifetime of Prince Chong, and King Kong also filed the complaint for sum of money during that time, will the action be dismissible upon Prince Chong’s death during the pendency of the case?

                Yes, the complaint will be dismissible if it is for sum of money only in the amount of P300,000.

               The Supreme Court has held several times that the totality of the amount claimed is determinative of what court has jurisdiction; where the total amount of the claim is only P300,000, the jurisdiction is with the MTC.

                Hence, the motion to dismiss on the ground of lack of jurisdiction will be untenable insofar as the total amount of the claim is P300,000.


 A search warrant was issued for the purpose of looking for unlicensed firearms in the house of Ass-asin, a notorious gun for hire. When the police served the warrant, they also sought the assistance of barangay tanods who were assigned to look at other portions of the premises around the house. In a nipa hut thirty (30) meters away from the house of Ass-asin, a barangay tanod came upon a kilo of marijuana that was wrapped in newsprint. He took it and this was later used by the authorities to charge Ass-asin with illegal possession of marijuana. Ass-asin objected to the introduction of such evidence claiming that it was illegally seized. Is the objection of Assasin valid? (4%)

                 Yes, the objection of Ass-asin is valid.

                 It is basic hornbook doctrine in Criminal Procedure that articles that are seized illegally are inadmissible in evidence, based on the constitutional guideline that articles to be seized should be particularly described in the search warrant.

                 Here, the kilo of marijuana seized was not particularly described in the search warrant. Therefore, the seized kilo of marijuana is inadmissible in evidence, and the objection is valid.



 Mary Jane met Shiela May at the recruitment agency where they both applied for overseas employment. They exchanged pleasantries, including details of their personal circumstances. Fortunately, Mary Jane was deployed to work as front desk receptionist at a hotel in Abu Dhabi where she met Sultan Ahmed who proposed marriage, to which she readily accepted. Unfortunately for Shiela May, she was not deployed to work abroad, and this made her envious of Mary Jane.

 Mary Jane returned to the Philippines to prepare for her wedding. She secured from the National Statistics Office (NSO) a Certificate of No Marriage. It turned out from the NSO records that Mary Jane had previously contracted marriage with John Starr, a British citizen, which she never did. The purported marriage between Mary Jane and John Starr contained all the required pertinent details on Mary Jane. Mary Jane later on learned that Shiela May is the best friend of John Starr.

As a lawyer, Mary Jane seeks your advice on her predicament. What legal remedy will you avail to enable Mary Jane to contract marriage with Sultan Ahmed? (4%)

                       I will advise Mary Jane to avail of Rule 108 to cancel the fake certificate of marriage.

                   Under the Rules of Special Proceedings, any interested party may file for the cancellation of entry of marriage before the RTC in the province where the corresponding civil registry is located.  The Supreme Court has held that there is no need to file a petition for declaration of nullity of marriage since there was no marriage to speak of in the first place.

               Hence, Mary Jane should file a petition for the cancellation of entry of marriage before the RTC of the province where the local civil registry is located.



 A foreign dog trained to sniff dangerous drugs from packages, was hired by FDP Corporation, a door to door forwarder company, to sniff packages in their depot at the international airport. In one of the routinary inspections of packages waiting to be sent to the United States of America (USA), the dog sat beside one of the packages, a signal that the package contained dangerous drugs. Thereafter, the guards opened the package and found two (2) kilograms of cocaine. The owner of the package was arrested and charges were filed against him. During the trial, the prosecution, through the trainer who was present during the incident and an expert in this kind of field, testified that the dog was highly trained to sniff packages to determine if the contents were dangerous drugs and the sniffing technique of these highly trained dogs was accepted worldwide and had been successful in dangerous drugs operations. The prosecution moved to admit this evidence to justify the opening of the package. The accused objected on the grounds that: (i) the guards had no personal knowledge of the contents of the package before it was opened; (ii) the testimony of the trainer of the dog is hearsay; and (iii) the accused could not cross-examine the dog. Decide. (4%)

                 The seized dangerous drugs are admissible in evidence against the owner of the package.

                Well-entrenched is the doctrine that articles seized during an airport search is an exception to the rule on illegal searches and therefore admissible in evidence.

                Here, the dangerous drugs were seized in an airport search setting. Ergo, such articles are admissible in evidence against the owner of the package where the articles were seized.



 When a Municipal Trial Court (MTC), pursuant to its delegated jurisdiction, renders an adverse judgment in an application for land registration, the aggrieved party’s remedy is: (1%)

 (A) ordinary appeal to the Regional Trial Court

(B) petition for review on certiorari to the Supreme Court

(C) ordinary appeal to the Court of Appeals

(D) petition for review to the Court of Appeals



 The Ombudsman, after conducting the requisite preliminary investigation, found probable cause to charge Gov. Matigas in conspiracy with Carpintero, a private individual, for violating Section 3(e) of Republic Act (RA) No. 3019 (Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, as amended). Before the information could be filed with the Sandiganbayan, Gov. Matigas was killed in an ambush. This, notwithstanding, an information was filed against Gov. Matigas and Carpintero.

 At the Sandiganbayan, Carpintero through counsel, filed a Motion to Quash the Information, on the ground of lack of jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan, arguing that with the death of Gov. Matigas, there is no public officer charged in the information. Is the motion to quash legally tenable? (4%)

                 No, the motion to quash is not legally tenable.

                Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure, the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction over a private individual who conspired with a public official in committing any of the prohibited acts under RA 3019.

                Hence, the Sandiganbayan can prosecute Carpintero for the criminal acts he committed under RA 3019 notwithstanding the death of his co-conspirator public official, rendering the motion to quash without merit.


 Plaintiff filed a complaint denominated as accion publiciana, against defendant. In his answer, defendant alleged that he had no interest over the land in question, except as lessee of Z. Plaintiff subsequently filed an affidavit of Z, the lessor of defendant, stating that Z had sold to plaintiff all his rights and interests in the property as shown by a deed of transfer attached to the affidavit. Thus, plaintiff may ask the court to render: (1%)

 (A) summary judgment

(B) judgment on the pleadings

(C) partial judgment

(D) judgment by default



 A was charged before the Sandiganbayan with a crime of plunder, a non-bailable offense, where the court had already issued a warrant for his arrest. Without A being arrested, his lawyer filed a Motion to Quash Arrest Warrant and to Fix Bail, arguing that the allegations in the information did not charge the crime of plunder but a crime of malversation, a bailable offense. The court denied the motion on the ground that it had not yet acquired jurisdiction over the person of the accused and that the accused should be under the custody of the court since the crime charged was nonbailable The accused’s lawyer counter-argued that the court can rule on the motion even if the accused was at-large because it had jurisdiction over the subject matter of the case. According to said lawyer, there was no need for the accused to be under the custody of the court because what was filed was a Motion to Quash Arrest and to Fix Bail, not a Petition for Bail.

 (A) If you are the Sandiganbayan, how will you rule on the motion? (3%)

                 I will deny the motion to quash and fix bail.

                The Rules of Criminal Procedure is clear that a motion to quash can be availed of only when a ground or grounds set therein are available as when the facts charged do not constitute an offense. Moreover, an application for bail sets in only when the accused has already acquired custody of the accused.

                Here, the information charges an offense which is the nonbailable crime of plunder.  Besides, the warrant of arrest has yet to be filed, meaning that A is not yet under the custody of the court. Therefore, the motion to quash and fix bail has no basis hence should be denied. 

(B) If the Sandiganbayan denies the motion, what judicial remedy should the accused undertake? (2%)

                 If the Sandiganbayan denies the motion, the accused should proceed to trial.

                Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure, an order denying a motion to quash is an interlocutory order which is neither appealable nor subject to a petition for certiorari.

               Therefore, the remedy of the accused is to proceed to trial, await its judgment, then appeal an unfavorable judgment.



 A was charged with murder in the lower court. His Petition for Bail was denied after a summary hearing on the ground that the prosecution had established a strong evidence of guilt. No Motion for Reconsideration was filed from the denial of the Petition for Bail. During the reception of the evidence of the accused, the accused reiterated his petition for bail on the ground that the witnesses so far presented by the accused had shown that no qualifying aggravating circumstance attended the killing. The court denied the petition on the grounds that it had already ruled that: (i) the evidence of guilt is strong; (ii) the resolution for the Petition for Bail is solely based on the evidence presented by the prosecution; and (iii) no Motion for Reconsideration was filed from the denial of the Petition for Bail. (6%)

 (A) If you are the Judge, how will you resolve the incident?

                 I will deny the petition for bail.

                Basic is the hornbook doctrine that bail is not a matter of right nor discretion when the offense charged is punishable by reclusion perpetua and the evidence of guilt is strong.

              Here, the offense charged is non-bailable, and the prosecution has established a strong evidence of A’s guilt. Thus, A is not entitled to bail.

 (B) Suppose the accused is convicted of the crime of homicide and the accused filed a Notice of Appeal, is he entitled to bail?

                   No, A is not entitled to bail even pending appeal.

             The standing rule is that if the penalty imposed by the trial court is imprisonment exceeding six years, the application for bail pending appeal shall be denied.

             Here, the imposable penalty for homicide to which A has been convicted is imprisonment exceeding six years, and hence not entitled to bail pending appeal.



 A vicarious admission is considered an exception to the hearsay rule. It, however, does not cover: (1%)

 (A) admission by a conspirator

(B) admission by a privy

(C) judicial admission

(D) adoptive admission



 Tom Wallis filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a Petition for Declaration of Nullity of his marriage with Debi Wallis on the ground of psychological incapacity of the latter. Before filing the petition, Tom Wallis had told Debi Wallis that he wanted the annulment of their marriage because he was already fed up with her irrational and eccentric behaviour. However, in the petition for declaration of nullity of marriage, the correct residential address of Debi Wallis was deliberately not alleged and instead, the residential address of their married son was stated. Summons was served by substituted service at the address stated in the petition. For failure to file an answer, Debi Wallis was declared in default and Tom Wallis presented evidence ex-parte. The RTC rendered judgment declaring the marriage null and void on the ground of psychological incapacity of Debi Wallis. Three (3) years after the RTC judgment was rendered, Debi Wallis got hold of a copy thereof and wanted to have the RTC judgment reversed and set aside. If you are the lawyer of Debi Wallis, what judicial remedy or remedies will you take? Discuss and specify the ground or grounds for said remedy or remedies. (5%)

                I will file for annulment of judgment on the ground of extrinsic fraud.

                Under Rule 47 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, a petition for annulment of judgment on the ground of extrinsic fraud may be filed with the Court of Appeals within four years from the discovery of the extrinsic fraud, when the other remedies are no longer available available.

                Here, the other remedies are no longer available insofar as three years had lapsed since the promulgation of the judgment, leaving Debi with annulment of judgment as the remaining available remedy. Hence, the filing of a petition for annulment of judgment on the ground of extrinsic fraud shall be properly taken.



 Goodfeather Corporation, through its President, Al Pakino, filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a complaint for specific performance against Robert White. Instead of filing an answer to the complaint, Robert White filed a motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground of lack of the appropriate board resolution from the Board of Directors of Goodfeather Corporation to show the authority of Al Pakino to represent the corporation and file the complaint in its behalf. The RTC granted the motion to dismiss and, accordingly, it ordered the dismissal of the complaint. Al Pakino filed a motion for reconsideration which the RTC denied. As nothing more could be done by Al Pakino before the RTC, he filed an appeal before the Court of Appeals (CA). Robert White moved for dismissal of the appeal on the ground that the same involved purely a question of law and should have been filed with the Supreme Court (SC). However, Al Pakino claimed that the appeal involved mixed questions of fact and law because there must be a factual determination if, indeed, Al Pakino was duly authorized by Goodfeather Corporation to file the complaint. Whose position is correct? Explain. (4%)

                 Al Parkino’s position is correct.

                Pursuant to the Rules of Civil Procedure, appeals involving questions of law and of fact shall be filed with the Court of Appeals.

                The appeal in this case involves determination of the authority of Al Parkino to file a complaint which is a question of fact. Hence, the appeal should properly be with the Court of Appeals.



 Which of the following decisions may be appealed directly to the Supreme Court (SC)? (Assume that the issues to be raised on appeal involve purely questions of law) (1%)

 (A) Decision of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) rendered in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction

(B) Decision of the RTC rendered in the exercise of its original jurisdiction

(C) Decision of the Civil Service Commission

(D) Decision of the Office of the President



 Mr. Humpty filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a complaint against Ms. Dumpty for damages. The RTC, after due proceedings, rendered a decision granting the complaint and ordering Ms. Dumpty to pay damages to Mr. Humpty. Ms. Dumpty timely filed an appeal before the Court of Appeals (CA), questioning the RTC decision. Meanwhile, the RTC granted Mr. Humpty’s motion for execution pending appeal. Upon receipt of the RTC’s order granting execution pending appeal, Ms. Dumpty filed with the CA another case, this time a special civil action for certiorari assailing said RTC order. Is there a violation of the rule against forum shopping considering that two (2) actions emanating from the same case with the RTC were filed by Ms. Dumpty with the CA? Explain. (4%)

                 No, there is no violation of the rule against forum shopping.

                The settled rule in Civil Procedure is that forum shopping applies only when what is filed are complaints or initiatory pleadings.

                Here, the appeal and petition for certiorari are neither complaints nor initiatory pleadings. Thus, the proscription against forum shopping does not apply.



 Solomon and Faith got married in 2005. In 2010, Solomon contracted a second marriage with Hope. When Faith found out about the second marriage of Solomon and Hope, she filed a criminal case for bigamy before the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Manila sometime in 2011. Meanwhile, Solomon filed a petition for declaration of nullity of his first marriage with Faith in 2012, while the case for bigamy before the RTC of Manila is ongoing. Subsequently, Solomon filed a motion to suspend the proceedings in the bigamy case on the ground of prejudicial question. He asserts that the proceedings in the criminal case should be suspended because if his first marriage with Faith will be declared null and void, it will have the effect of exculpating him from the crime of bigamy. Decide. (4%)

                 The motion to suspend the proceeding in the case for bigamy should be denied.

                The established rule in Criminal Procedure is that prejudicial question exists when a civil action has been filed prior to a criminal action, and the resolution of the civil action is determinative of whether the criminal action should proceed. Moreover, the crime of bigamy is committed by the mere contracting of a second marriage during the subsistence of a first marriage with a different spouse notwithstanding the voidness of the previous of subsequent marriage.

                Here, the civil action for the declaration of nullity of marriage was filed not prior but subsequent to the criminal case for bigamy. Importantly, Solomon had contracted a second marriage during the subsistence of his first marriage with another spouse. Hence, there exists no prejudicial question that merits the suspension of the criminal prosecution for bigamy.



 Mr. Boaz filed an action for ejectment against Mr. Jachin before the Metropolitan Trial Court (MeTC). Mr. Jachin actively participated in every stage of the proceedings knowing fully well that the MeTC had no jurisdiction over the action. In his mind, Mr. Jachin was thinking that if the MeTC rendered judgment against him, he could always raise the issue on the jurisdiction of the MeTC. After trial, the MeTC rendered judgment against Mr. Jachin. What is the remedy of Mr. Jachin? (1%)

 (A) File an appeal

(B) File an action for nullification of judgment

(C) File a motion for reconsideration

(D) File a petition for certiorari under Rule 65



 Parole evidence is an: (1%)

 (A) agreement not included in the document

(B) oral agreement not included in the document

(C) agreement included in the document

(D) oral agreement included in the document



 Mr. Avenger filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a complaint against Ms. Bright for annulment of deed of sale and other documents. Ms. Bright filed a motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground of lack of cause of action. Mr. Avenger filed an opposition to the motion to dismiss.  State and discuss the appropriate remedy/remedies under each of the following situations: (6%)

 (A) If the RTC grants Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss and dismisses the complaint on the ground of lack of cause of action, what will be the remedy/remedies of Mr. Avenger?

        Mr. Avenger can re-file the case pursuant to Rule 16 of the Rules of Civil Procedure.

 (B) If the RTC denies Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss, what will be her remedy/remedies?

                 Applying Rule 16, Ms. Bright can file an answer within the balance of the period but not less than 5 days, or file a petition for certiorari under Rule 65 predicated on a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or in excess of jurisdiction.

 (C) If the RTC denies Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss and, further proceedings, including trial on the merits, are conducted until the RTC renders a decision in favor of Mr. Avenger, what will be the remedy/remedies of Ms. Bright?

                 Ms. Bright can file for a motion for reconsideration and in case of the denial thereof to file an appeal from te judgment or final order, likewise pursuant to Rule 16.



 A was adopted by B and C when A was only a toddler. Later on in life, A filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a petition for change of name under Rule 103 of the Rules of Court, as he wanted to reassume the surname of his natural parents because the surname of his adoptive parents sounded offensive and was seriously affecting his business and social life.  The adoptive parents gave their consent to the petition for change of name. May A file a petition for change of name? If the RTC grants the petition for change of name, what, if any, will be the effect on the respective relations of A with his adoptive parents and with his natural parents? Discuss. (4%)

                     Yes, A may file a petition for change of name.

                Under the Rules of Summary Proceedings, a petition for change of name (surname) may be filed with the RTC on the grounds that the name is ridiculous, dishonorable or extremely difficult to write or pronounce, and the change is a legal consequence of adoption.

                Hence, A may file a petition for change of name insofar as the grounds are available to him.


 Estrella was the registered owner of a huge parcel of land located in a remote part of their barrio in Benguet. However, when she visited the property after she took a long vacation abroad, she was surprised to see that her childhood friend, John, had established a vacation house on her property. Both Estrella and John were residents of the same barangay.

 To recover possession, Estrella filed a complaint for ejectment with the Municipal Trial Court (MTC), alleging that she is the true owner of the land as evidenced by her certificate of title and tax declaration which showed the assessed value of the property as P21,000.00. On the other hand, John refuted Estrella’s claim of ownership and submitted in evidence a Deed of Absolute Sale between him and Estrella. After the filing of John’s answer, the MTC observed that the real issue was one of ownership and not of possession. Hence, the MTC dismissed the complaint for lack of jurisdiction.

 On appeal by Estrella to the Regional Trial Court (RTC), a full-blown trial was conducted as if the case was originally filed with it. The RTC reasoned that based on the assessed value of the property, it was the court of proper jurisdiction. Eventually, the RTC rendered a judgment declaring John as the owner of the land and, hence, entitled to the possession thereof. (4%)

 (A) Was the MTC correct in dismissing the complaint for lack of jurisdiction? Why or why not?

                    No, the MTC was not correct in dismissing the complaint for lack of jurisdiction.

                Under the Rules on Ejectment, the action for ejectment is within the exclusive and original jurisdiction of the MTC irrespective of total amount of the claims.

                Hence, it was erroneous for the MTC to dismiss the complaint for ejectment as it falls properly within its jurisdiction.

(B) Was the RTC correct in ruling that based on the assessed value of the property, the case was within its original jurisdiction and, hence, it may conduct a full-blown trial of the appealed case as if it was originally filed with it? Why or why not?

                  No, the RTC ruling based on the assessed value is not correct.

                  The Supreme Court in applying the Rules has held that what determines jurisdiction of the court as conferred by law is the nature of the action pleaded as appearing from the allegations in the complaint. The averments therein and the character of the relief sought are the ones to be consulted.

               Here, the jurisdiction over ejectment cases is conferred by law exclusively and originally upon the MTC. Necessarily, the nature of the action is alleged by the facts in the complaint herein. Hence, the RTC should have remanded the case to the MTC since it is the latter that has jurisdiction over the case.


Advisory to the candidates of the 2015 Bar Exams, especially those who took the Bar exams three times and more already.


Make sure that the schools where you attend the Refresher Course as well as the Review Center are duly accredited by the Supreme Court Legal education Board.

Please click the link below to see the Rules for Curriculum of Refresher Review as well as the List of Schools Accredited to Offer Refresher and Review Courses.


Rules for Curriculum of Refresher Review Class & List of Accredited Schools



Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 4, 2014




The pre-Socratic philosophers (around 600 BCE) were the earliest rational thinkers in the Western civilization. Their philosophies centered on the questions, “What is the world made of?” “How did the world come into being” and “How can we explain the process of change?” The western Ionian seaport of Miletus across the Aegean Sea from Athens was the meeting place between the East and the West, where Oriental, Egyptian and Babylonian (Eastern) philosophies influenced the development of what came to be the enduring Greek philosophy. While Eastern philosophies probed nature’s depths intuitively and spiritually, early Greek thinkers viewed nature cognitively and scientifically. Pre-Socratic philosophy represented a paradigm shift from the mythical explanation of the origins of the cosmos to intellectual, scientific attempts to understand the origins of the universe.


The men traditionally referred to as the Seven Sages were philosophers, statesmen and legislators of the late seventh and sixth centuries BCE. Exactly who were in the list was later named by Plato as: Thales, Pittacus of Mytilene, Bias of Priene, Solon of Athens (the father of Athenian Democracy), Cleobilus of Lindus, Myson of Chenae, and Chilon of Sparta. Except for Thales, they were not really philosophers in the modern sense, but practical politicians. However, in that respect their speeches and sayings can be seen as ultimate precursors of the Classical period’s greatest thinkers about ethics, politics and morality (Socrates, Plato and Aristotle).



  1. HERODOTUS (c. 484-425 BCE)

Herodotus became the father of history. His subject was the history of the Archaic period (c. 750-480 BCE), and his underlying theme was the meeting of the Greek world with the cultures of Asia Minor, the Near East and Egypt. His work shares some of the preoccupations of the Presocratic philosophers in its fascination with the nature of different human cultures and the underlying causes of human actions, especially warfare, without reference to gods or divine will. His style was rather anecdotal than analytical, and he is often very naïve, but his curiosity and questioning attitude , and his attention to all sides of an issue, using both Greek and non-Greek sources, link him methodologically with the Presocratic philosophers.

  1. THUCYDIDES (c. 455-400 BCE)

Called the “pioneer of scientific history,” Thucydides unlike Herodotus, concentrated on a wholly Greek subject, the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (431-404 BCE). He was more analytical historian than Herodotus was, brilliantly unraveling the complex processes of decision-making or failure to decide that determined the fortunes of the parties in the war.


Most of the Presocratic philosophers thought that material principles alone were principles of all things. They had varying ideas of what the primordial substance was; but they could scarcely even have conceptualized a single origin for the universe if they had not already formed a concept of the universe as an ordered whole whose order should be determined: it was neither the creation of some gods or divine force nor a disordered mess intractable to intelligent explanation. The word they used for this order was kosmos, a word cognate with kosmeuein, to arrange or set in order. Heraclitus is probably the first Greek thinker to use kosmos clearly in this sense of the ordered world. The early Presocratics also argued that the world was governed by some regulatory force; this idea lies behind the Anaximander’s notion of cosmic justice, which maintains balance in the universe. Heraclitus and Parmenides were also concerned with cosmic justice.

Mathematics was an important part of Presocratic philosophy. The Greeks traditionally regarded Egypt as the wellspring of mathematics, but it was they who applied deductive reasoning to it. Thales introduced the notion of mathematical proof and made some basic geometrical discoveries. Mathematics was central to Pythagorean movement: numerous discoveries in geometry and music, including the famous theorem about the square of the hypotenuse, have been attributed to Pythagoreans rather than to Pythagoras himself. Among other things, Pythagoreans proved the existence of “irrational” numbers, with a drastic effect on the rest of their theory of the universe.

Most of the Presocratic philosophers were aristocratic or propertied citizens, active in the government of the cities or as military leaders; but mere practical political advice hardly counts as philosophizing. The Pythagoreans were primarily interested in the soul, and believed in reincarnation. Their view of philosophy as a way of life also shows where their main interest lay. On the whole, even the later Presocratic philosophers were not explicitly interested in ethical theory, though they did concern themselves with theories of mind, its distinction from matter, and the nature of knowledge.

  1. THALES OF MILETUS (625-545 BCE)

Thales was famous for having observed or perhaps predicted the first accurately datable event in Greek history: a solar eclipse on 28 May 585 BCE. His interests in eclipses  would well have sprung from Miletus’ links with Lydia, and through Lydia with Babylonia, where eclipses had long been studied by astronomers.

Thales is widely considered to have broken new ground when he theorized that water was the original substance out of which everything else was created. This was a breakthrough, because for the first time, there was a reasoned argument to support a theory, based on Thales’ empirical observation not only on the behavior of water itself (freezing, evaporation, thawing), which caused it to change from one thing to another and reverse the process while still demonstratively water, but of the reliance of all life forms on water for nourishment. Thales’ realization that a substance could change without losing its essential nature was also important; and it was an idea carried forward by Anaximenes, the youngest of the three Milesian pioneers, in his concept of rarefaction and condensation in the universe.

Thales also held the earth floats on water, like a floating log. However, he did not explain what the water itself rests on, or whether it is limitless, as might have been appropriate for the primordial substance. Thales also theorized that all things are full of gods, and the magnet is alive for it has the power to move iron.




The second of the Milesians, Anaximander proposed that the universe not only originated in a single primordial substance but was subject to a single law. Unlike Thales, Anaximander posited that this substance, the material principle of everything that exists, was not only familiar earthly substance but something that he called apeiron, “the boundless”. Anaximander believed that everything in the world derived from four elements—air, water, earth, and fire—that existed necessarily as pair of opposites. But he disagreed with Thales’ view that any of the four could be the underlying substance on its own, because each of them needed its opposite to maintain its existence. Beyond the four elements, he argued, there had to be something that had no opposite: accordingly he hypothesized the apeiron. As well as being limitless in extent, the apeiron was “eternal and ageless, ungenerated and indestructible,” and from it came the heavens and “all the worlds”.

Perhaps springing from the notion of constant change, Anaximander conceived of a process of generation among animals that looks at first sight like a distant ancestor of a theory of evolution. Viewed more closely, his ideas about this process seem to owe more to observation of the development of insects from larvae: that the first animals were born in moisture, surrounded by prickly bark, from which they later emerged on dry land, and for a short time lived in a different kind of life. He posited the emergence of human beings out of fish or fish-like creatures in a similar process, not emerging and taking to the land until they were able to fend for themselves.

Anaximander was the first man to make a map of the earth—which he conceived of as cylindrical,  set in the center of a spherical universe around which the sun, moon, and stars circle, equidistant from the earth, in a celestial wheel. He conceived of a series of wheels or hoops, set at different distances from the earth, hollow and filled with fire, and punctuated by openings or vents; light or fire showing through these vents accounted for the appearances of the heavenly bodies. The hoop of the sun was twenty-seven greater than the earth, that of the moon eighteen times greater. Phases of the moon and eclipses were explained in terms of the blocking and opening of the vents. This picture may seem extremely fanciful, but it contains two revolutionary features: (1) the notion that the universe was spherical, and (2) the idea that it was the circular shape of the hoops that prevented them from falling in towards the sun.


The third in the succession of early Milesians, Anaximenes, pupil of Anaximander, adopted Thales’ idea that the primordial stuff was an observable substance, choosing air, and proposed that the single law that governed the generation of matter was one of rarefaction and condensation. Here was another process of continual change and motion. The most rarefied condition of air was fire; successive degrees of condensation produced wind, clouds, water, earth, and finally, at the densest, stone. Rarefaction was caused by heating, condensation by cooling. The movement involved in rarefaction and condensation also made matter visible or invisible.

On the shape of the universe, Anaximenes also looked back to Thales: his earth, sun and other heavenly bodies were all fiery, shaped like flat discs, and airborne, turning in a circle above the flat earth. The heavenly bodies would not fall through the air because, being flat, they offered resistance. Anaximenes’ model of the universe and in particular the earth proved highly influential: Anaxagoras and Democritus are among those who agreed with him.


  1. PYTHAGORAS (Born 570 BCE)

Pythagoras believed in the transmigration of souls and established a religious sect centered on that belief. Pythagoreans’ belief in reincarnation, their communal way of life, their secrecy, and their veneration to the founding figure make it difficult to identify individual members of Pythagoras’ circle to detect what is original to Pythagoras.

Pythagoras marks the beginning of a different tradition of thought from that of the Milesians. He did not concern much with nature, being more interested with the soul and its qualities. He saw both the universe and the soul as endless and unchanging, the same things recurring eternally, and within this scheme the soul was subject to a series of reincarnations. Pythagorean philosophy was full of mystical and religious thought. Much of it was expressed in short sayings or aphorisms, called akousmata (“things heard”), which included the famous advice to abstain from beans but also statements about the universe, for example that the planets were bearers of divine vengeance, the purpose of thunder was to frighten souls in the underworld, and earthquakes were gathering of the dead. Other akousmata took the form of instructions or prohibitions that seem frankly superstitious: Put your right shoe first, don’t have children by a woman who wears gold, don’t look in a mirror by lamplight, etc. These are less scientific than the Ionian pioneers, ant hey make no use of reasoned argument at all.

Pythagoreans had speculated that everything in the world, and the relations between things, could be explained in terms of numbers. Their attempt to establish measurability combined the intellectual and the mystical in a way that seems strange to us: they thought, for instance, that marriage is five because it joins the first even (female, limited) number with the first odd (male, unlimited) one. Even the soul had a number. They noticed as well that musical intervals could be expressed numerically, related to the lengths of strings on a lyre. From this they postulated that if musical harmony depended on numerical ratios, the harmony of the universe could also be expressed numerically.

In the fifth century BCE, Pythagoreans split into two factions: Aphorists (akousmatikoi), and Mathematicians (mathematikoi), reflecting the two sides of Pythagorean thought.


  1. XENOPHANES (580-480 BCE)


Poet-philosopher Xenophanes was the first philosopher of religion. He was extremely critical of the traditional portrayal of the gods in Homer and the epic poems, where they behaved so disappointingly like humans, forever committing “theft and adultery and mutual deception.” This does not mean that Xenophanes was an atheist; on the contrary, he could be very pious. His remarks are a critical analysis of religion as it was practiced in the day. He believed that people imagined God in their own image.

Xenophanes hypothesized on non-mythological theology centered on a single or supreme god—it is not entirely clear from the surviving fragments whether he is referring to just one god or a god that is the greatest of many. The important thing is that this divinity is not a person but an abstract, impersonal divine principle, similar to mortals neither in shape nor in thought, able to shape all things by the force of its mind alone, capable of accomplishing everything while always reposing the same state or place—and ultimately unknowable to human minds.

His theory of the fundamental primary substance was earth and water, or a mixture of the two. In meteorology, Xenophanes made a remarkably prescient observation that clouds are formed by vaporization caused by the heat of the sun, and used this concept to suggest explanations for a number of astronomical phenomena. In short, Xenophanes combined a new approach to belief in divine order with the lively inquiry into the nature of the world and its contents typical to his Ionian predecessors.


  1. HERACLITUS (540-475 BCE)

Nicknamed the “weeping philosopher,” Heraclitus was paired with Democritus who was the “laughing philosopher”. Central to Heraclitus’ philosophy was that the natural universe is governed by a law of opposites held in tension, as in a bow and a lance. In general, he saw the universe as made up of pairs of opposites similar with Anaximandrian idea, but with the difference that Heraclitus saw justice and strife as themselves necessary. This paradoxical unity of opposites can be shown in many images: the sea is most pure and polluted water; for fish, it is drinkable and preserves life; for men, it is undrinkable and it kills; or his famous riddle: the path up and down is one and the same. Thus, the same road can appear in two opposite ways, depending on which direction you are looking at it. It tells us that the natures of things are not absolute in themselves but relative to our point of view. On the other hand, it appears as more complex metaphor referring to the process of cyclical change by which the cosmos eternally comes into being.

Fire was the element Heraclitus choose as the primordial substance—or rather the primordial process of the world. He maintained that the world always existed and had been made neither by god nor man, but always was, is and will be, an ever-living fire, kindling and being quenched in proportion. Everything else had arisen from this eternally ongoing process of combustion. From this process a universal harmony emerged.

In contrast to the idea of oneness and stasis put forward by his Eleatic contemporary Parmenides, Heraclitus claimed that everything changes and nothing remains. The process of change is the logos—the logic or rationale—of the universe. Heraclitus rejected the accepted Greek religion but believed in the existence of something divine, which he identified with the eternal cosmic fire.

Heraclitus was emphatic on the imperfection of human knowledge: Me do not understand the things they meet with—not even when they have learned them do they know them. In particular, most divine acts escape our knowledge. The individual’s subjective knowledge is incomplete, and wisdom lies not in learning but in the soul’s awakening to the logos: wisdom is one thing, to grasp the knowledge of how all things are steered through all.  His theories have been considered precursors of the laws of conservation and energy; is ideas about divine logos found their way, via Plato, into Christian theology. The opening words of the gospel of John (“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God”) may echo this logos, reaching right back to Heraclitus.

  1. PARMENIDES (Born 515 BCE)

Parmenides used logical argument to prove that being, or “what is” is single, without beginning or end, continuous, and also finite and spherical; and that, contrary to the evidence of our senses, our belief in plurality and change in the world is erroneous and the material world around us is an illusion. The logical theory begins with the statement that something is, or something is not. The reason is that we can only conceptualize and speak about things that exist; we are unable to do this with things that don’t exist. He also offered the startling theory that the entire universe consists of one thing, which never changes, has no parts, and can never be destroyed, calling this single thing the One.


  1. ZENO (Born 490 BCE)

A friend of Parmenides, Zeno is best known for his series of logical paradoxes, which illustrate the method of reduction ad absurdum—proving or disproving a statement by taking its consequences through strictly logical steps to the point of absurdity. He asserted that our senses do not give us reliable knowledge but only opinion. The most famous of the paradoxes are four arguments proving the impossibility of motion, apparently supporting Parmenides’ idea that motion was illusory. Two of those paradoxes are:

(1)    Achilles and the tortoise. In a race, the fastest runner can never overtake the slowest, for the pursuer must first reach the point where the pursued set out, so that the slower one must always be in the lead. Imagine the Greek epic hero Achilles, famed for his speed, in a race with a humble tortoise. If the tortoise, as the slower contestant, is given a head start, it will always remain ahead; for by the time Achilles has reached the point from which the tortoise started out, the tortoise has moved on—by a shorter distance than Achilles has covered, admittedly, but still it has moved on. And whenever Achilles reaches a point that the tortoise has just left, it is still ahead. Since there is an infinite number of points Achilles has to reach where the tortoise has already been, he will never catch up, for even though the distance between the racers becomes infinitesimal, it can never shrink to nothing. Zeno argues, hence, that motion is impossible.

(2)    The paradox of dichotomy, or halving. If something is divisible, theoretically it can be cut in two infinite number of times, until it either becomes an infinite number of infinitesimal pieces from which the whole could be reconstituted, or else disappears into nothing, which would mean that the whole thing was constituted from nothing—which is impossible. Therefore, Zeno concludes, there cannot be a plurality of things but just the one. Aristotle saw this paradox as a variation on Achilles and the tortoise, but there is a further problem in it, illustrated by the case of Achilles and the racetrack, or indeed anyone progressing from point A to point B. There is no competitor this time, but to get to the end of the track—from A to B—you have to reach the halfway mark; before you can get there, you have to  get a quarter of the way there; before that, an eighth of the way… and so on till, in the end, with infinitesimal divisions of the distance, it will take you forever just to start off.

In all of these arguments, Zeno was counterattacking the adversaries of Parmenides, taking seriously their assumption of a pluralistic world where a line or time is divisible. By pushing these assumptions to their logical conclusions, Zeno attempted to demonstrate that the notion of a pluralistic world lands one in insoluble absurdities and paradoxes. He therefore reiterated Parmenides’ thesis that change and motion are illusions and that there is only one being, continuous, material, and motionless. In spite of Zeno’s valiant efforts, the commonsense view of the world persisted, which prompted succeeded philosophers to take a different approach to the problem of change and constancy.



  1. EMPEDOCLES (490-430 BCE)


Empedocles was an impressive figure in Agrigentum, Sicily. Legend has it that since he wished to be remembered as a godlike figure, he ended his life by jumping into the crater of Mount Etna, hoping to leave no trace of his body so that people would think that he had gone up to heaven.

He agreed with Parmenides that being is uncreated and indestructible, that it simply is. But unlike Parmenides, Empedocles believed that existence consisted not only of One but many which are changeless and eternal. He philosophized that the objects that we see and experience do come into being and are also destroyed, but such change and motion are possible because objects are composed of many material particles. Thus, although objects can change, the particles of which they are composed of are changeless—the four eternal material elements: earth, water, air, and fire. What explains the changes in objects that we see around us is the mixture of the four elements, but not their transformation. There is “only the mingling and interchange of what has been mingled.”

Empedocles’ account of earth, air, water, and fire constitutes only the first account of his theory. The second part is an account of the specific forces that animate the process of change. The Ionians assumed that the stuff of nature simply transformed itself into various objects. Only Anaximenes made any detailed attempt to analyze the process of change with his theory of condensed and expanded air. By contrast, Empedocles assumed that there are two forces, Love and Hate (Harmony and Discord), that cause the four elements to intermingle and later separate. Hate causes the decomposition of things. The four elements then mix together or separate from each other depending on the amount of Love or Hate that is present.

Four stages of the cycle, according to Empedocles, are: (1) Love is present and Hate is completely absent. Here, the four elements are fully commingled and are held in Harmony by the governing principle of Love. (2) The force of Hate, lurking nearby, starts to invade things, but there is still more Love present than Hate. (3) Hate begins to dominate, and the particles fall into Discord and begin to separate. (4) Only Hate is present, and all particles of the four elements separate into their own four groups. There, the four elements are ready to begin a new cycle as the force of Love turns to attract the elements into harmonious combinations. The continues without end.


  1. ANAXAGORAS (500-428 BCE)


Anaxagoras’ major philosophical contribution was the concept of Nuos (mind), which he distinguished from matter. He agreed with Empedocles’ theory of mixture and separation of the existing substances, but rejected the latter’s ambiguous, mythical notions of Love and Hate. Anaxagoras thought that the world and all its objects well-ordered and intricate structures; there must then be some being with knowledge and power that organizes the material world in this fashion—this rational principle is his concept of the Nuos.

According to Anaxagoras, the nature of reality is best understood as consisting of mind and matter; before mind has influenced the shape of and behavior of matter, matter exists, as a mixture of various kinds of material substances, all uncreated and imperishable. Even when this original mass of matter is divided into actual objects, each part contains portions of every other elemental “thing” (spermata, or seeds).

Aristotle criticized Anaxagoras’ philosophy in this wise: Anaxagoras uses reason as a divine machine for making the world, and when he is at a loss to tell from what cause something, then he drags the reason in, ascribing events to anything rather than reason. Anaxagoras seemed to provide an explanation only of how matter acquired its rotary motion, leaving the rest of the order of nature to be a product of that  motion.



“Atom” literally means “uncuttable” or indivisible. Atomism constituted a systematic, internally coherent natural philosophy explaining everything in the perceptible world. What is innovative about the theory is that it never suggested that the movement of atoms is governed by any intelligence or intentionality, divine or otherwise, either operating upon or inherent in the primal substance. Atomism appears as the first truly materialist answer to Heraclitus’ Logos, Parmenides’ One, Empedocles’ Love and Strife, and Anaxagoras’ Nuos. By positing indivisible units of matter, the atomists were also providing an answer to Zeno’s paradoxes showing that motion is impossible.

Atomism was extremely influential. It was taken up by Epicurus and Lucretius. Less directly, it seems to have had some influence on Plato, who presents a theory based on a different conception of indivisibles. We cannot trace a direct line from ancient atomism to the modern atomic theory of the twentieth century, for it was not a scientific theory resting on experimental method. Yet lacking the advantages of experimentation, Leocippus and Democritus theorized purely materialist explanation of the world, using concepts that prefigure, however distantly, the way we understand the structure of matter today.

  1. DEMOCRITUS (460-370 BCE)


Democritus, “the laughing philosopher,” was probably the most prolific Greek philosopher after Aristotle. He wrote on ethical subjects (contentment, meanliness or virtue, wisdom); on natural science (a vast range of topics ranging from a description of the whole world of treatises on flavors and colors); on various natural phenomena such as the heavens, the atmosphere, fire, sounds, plants and animals; on mathematics, literature, medicine and even farming. This laughing philosopher set great value on cheerfulness or contentment in his ethical writings, defining the general goal of life as joy, contentment or tranquility, and locating it in the soul. But it is above all for the theory of atomism that both he and Leucippus are remembered.

Democritus was concerned with two other philosophical problems: the problem of knowledge and the problem of human conduct. Being a thorough materialist,, Democritus held that thought can be explained in the same way that any other phenomenon can, namely, as the movement of atoms. He distinguished between two different kinds of perception, one of the senses and one of the understanding, both of these being physical processes. When our eyes see something, this something is an “effluence” or the shedding of atoms by the object, forming an “image.” These atomic images enter the eyes, and other organs of sense, and make and impact upon the soul, which is itself made up of atoms.

Democritus further distinguishes between two ways of knowing things: “there are two forms of knowledge, the trueborn and the illegitimate. To the illegitimate belong all these: sight, hearing, taste, touch. The trueborn is quite apart from these.” What distinguishes these two types of thought is that, whereas, “trueborn” knowledge depends only on the object, “illegitimate” knowledge is affected by the particular conditions of the body of the person involved. In ethics, Democritus stressed that the  ost desirable goal of life is cheerfulness, and we best achieve this through moderation in all things along with the cultivation of culture.




Leocippus was the founder of the atomist school. He proposed that the universe consists of two basic constituents: indivisibly small atoms, of which an infinite number (but not infinite variety) exist, and void of nothingness, which is also infinite, and in which the atoms move eternally. There is a limitless quantity of shapes among them (since there is no more reason for them to have one shape than another).

Leocippus affirmed the reality of space and thereby prepared the way for a coherent theory of motion and change. He described space as something like a receptacle that could be empty in some places and full in others. As a receptacle, space, or the void, could be the place where objects move, and Leocippus apparently saw no reason for denying this characteristic of space. Without this concept of space, it would have been impossible for Leocippus and Democritus to develop their view that all things consist of atoms.



Discussion of the Sophists centers much on method as on content. Te word sophists, apparently a word invented only in the fifth century BCE, means someone whose calling is that of wisdom or knowledge, and it came to be applied to peripatetic professional teachers, who travelled around teaching the rhetorical and language skills necessary to argue a case and other practical capabilities needed by men engaged in politics and the law, rather than theorizing about nature for its own sake. As itinerant teachers, they did not found schools, but as participants in the dialogues of Plato, their posterity came to be assured. Very few of the sophists were born in Athens.

The Sophists were highly influential in the development of the method of adversarial debate and advocacy, and in promoting a skeptical, questioning approach to knowledge and judgment. But they did not entirely abandon speculation about the nature of the world. In particular, they thought about knowledge and its relation with reality. The social changes of the fifth century BCE meant that the philosophy turned its attention away from questions about the nature of knowledge, morality and justice.  On the whole, Sophists did not concern themselves with cosmological or physical speculation; they were more interested in studying how we know and what is knowable than in increasing the store of what we know. This concern had come to them from theorists such as Parmenides, and it was developed by both Protagoras and Gorgias, two of the principal Sophists.

The Sophists also claimed to teach “virtue”—which they understood, for practical purposes, broadly as the qualities necessary for a successful public career in a city-state. This was the basis for the bad reputation they acquired, principally from Plato, who mocked and attacked them mercilessly in several works because they “taught wisdom for money.” But Plato’s idealism and political conservatism were naturally antithetical to the Sophists’ pragmatism and relativism. A central preoccupation of much of his thought was to arrive at impregnable definitions of justice and goodness. The Sophists on the other hand were more comfortable with the shifts that were occurring in these concepts, and said that such definitions depended on who was doing the defining. They argued that some opinions are preferable to others for particular people and particular purposes, but they are not necessarily more or less wise, or even truer.

  1. PROTAGORAS (485-411 BCE)

Protagoras was the first and arguably the greates of the Sophists, like Democraticus and the first Sophist to come to Athens. He was a friend of Pericles and suffered the fate of many friends of Pericles, being accused of “impiety” and having to leave Athens in a hurry: he was apparently drowned in a shipwreck on his way to Sicily.

We know of Protagoras’ ideas mainly through Plato, which is unfortunate, since Plato usually sets these ideas up only in order to demolish them. Protagoras has become generally known as the father of relativism—a label that shows him to have been diametrically opposed to everything Plato stood for. His chief claim to fame is familiar, and endlessly debated, aphorism, “Man is the measure of all things.” In this, he was suggesting that there is no reality apart from what we perceive. And if our perceptions are the guarantee of the reality of thigs, then the center of the universe is humanity. Protagoras accepted no absolutes existing anywhere beyond human perception and judgment, as regards the nature of the gods, the nature of the worlds around us, or to the nature of virtue and justice. Taken to their logical conclusions, these ideas could legitimate the rejection of any kind of law or morality.

Protagoras was also an agnostic: while not disbelieving in the gods, he questioned the possibility that humans can know about them. His key insight on the limits of knowledge was that truth requires a measure external to itself, and the best available measure was human knowledge and experience, and that truths are not objectively true without reference to anything else but held true within systems of thought or collectivities, such as the city.

  1. GORGIAS (483-378 BCE)

An extreme sceptic, Gorgias refuted all possible views on existence and non-existence, claiming that nothing exists; or if it does, it is unknowable; or if it is unknowable, we cannot articulate it to anyone else. He seems to have been influenced y Empedocles and Zeno. Gorgias was specifically interested in the use of speech and language on the emotions, and mentions the way tragedy can inspire pity and fear, thus prefiguring Aristotle’s views on the effect of tragic drama in his Poetics. In a defense of Helen of Troy, who was traditionally held responsible for theTrojan War, Gorgias even went so far as to claim that words are by their very nature deceptive and fraudulent and that Helen was innocent because she had been overcome by the power of persuasion.

Gorgias was a also a stylistic innovator, applying to prose the figures of speech and rhetorical effects usually confined at the time of poetry. Plato criticized him in the dialogue that bears his name, arguing for the distinction between rhetoric and philosophy.




Prodicus came up with a utililarian  explanation of traditional theology, suggesting that the sun, the moon and other heavenly bodies were regarded as divinities because they were useful to the development of human society. The polymathic Hippias appears in two dialogues of Plato named after him, being ironically criticized by Socrates for getting rich from teaching. He is interesting for having made, possibly for the first time, the distinction between law (nomos) and nature (physics) as the basis of morality. This view was developed further by Antiphon, who asserted more radically the nature is “truth” and its edicts “compulsory,” whereas human law is mere “opinion” arrived at by consent, and that is preferable to break human law in order to follow natural law than the reverse.

Tharismachus is represented in Plato’s Republic as putting forward the thesis that justice can be defined as the interest of the stronger and that governments make laws for their own advantage. This is the kind of argument that earned the Sophists a bad name; but there is strong philosophical point in Bertrand Russell’s approval of them because they were “prepared to follow an argument wherever it might lead them,” even though that plae was often one of profound skepticism.


Posted by: Elmer Brabante | May 4, 2014




AESTHETICS – The branch of Philosophy that is concerned with the analysis of concepts such as beauty or beautiful as standards for judging works of art.

AGNOSTICISM – A claim of ignorance; the claim that God’s existence can neither be proved nor disproved.

ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY – The philosophical school of thought associated with Russel, Moore, Ryle, Carnap, Ayer, and Wittgenstein that emphasizes the analysis of language and meaning. Specifically, it is the conviction that philosophical problems, puzzles, and errors are rooted in language and can be solved or avoided by a sound understanding of language.

ANARCHISM – That theory that all forms of government are incompatible with individual and social liberty and should be abolished.

ANIMISM – The belief that many spirits inhabit the nature.

ANTHROMORPHISM – The attribution of human qualities to human entities, especially to God.

ANTIREALISM – The doctrine that the objects of our senses do not exist independently of our perceptions, beliefs, concepts, and languages.

ATHEISM – The belief that a personal God does not exist. In the last two centuries, some of the most influential atheistic philosophers have been Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Bertrand Russell, and Jean-Paul Sartre.

AUTHORITY – A source of our theological knowledge, specifically for philosophers and theologians who hold that the mysteries of faith surpass the reach of human person.

AVIDYA – In Buddhism, pertains to the cause of all sufferings and frustrations; it means ignorance or unawareness that leads to clinging.

AXIOLOGY – The study of the general theory of values, including their origin, nature, and classification.

BECOMING – In Hegelian thought, refers to the world in which everything in our daily experience—persons and things—comes into being and passes away.

BEHAVIORISM – In Psychological Philosophy, it is the school of psychology that restricts the study of human nature to what can be observed rather than to states of consciousness.

BEING – A general term in metaphysics referring to ultimate reality or existence. True being, for Plato, is the realm of the eternal Forms.

BRAHMAN – The Hindu concept of a personal Supreme Being; the source and goal of everything.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY – Founded by Siddharta Gautama (Buddha), believes that the ultimate goal of human being is the attainment of nirvana, the state that is free from the causes of pain and suffering.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE – Immanuel Kant’s ethical formula: act as if the maxim (the general rule) by which a person acts could be willed to become a universal law; it is the belief that what is right for one person is also right for everyone in similar circumstances. This is compared with hypothetical imperatives, which permit exceptions.

CHINESE ROOM ARGUMENT – A thought experiment offered by by Searle to refute the claims of strong artificial intelligence advocates that suitably programmed machines are capable of cognitive mental states.

COGITO – Literally, in Latin, “I think.” Used by Descartes to describe the self as a thinking thing.

COMMON SENSE REALISM – The epistemological position that does not distinguish between an object and an experience of it.

COMPATIBILISM – The belief that both determinism and freedom of the will are true; religion and reason are compatible with each other and do not conflict.

CONCEPTUAL RELATIVIST VIEW IN EPISTEMOLOGY – The view that the true scientific theory is nothing more than a theory that coheres with the conceptual framework accepted by a community of scientists.

CONDITIONED GENESIS – The Buddha formula consisting of twelve factors that summarize the principles of conditionality, relativity, and independence.

CONFUCIANISM – An ethical theory which asserts that human beings are part of nature, who must live in accordance with the natural law that governs and guides the movements of all things.

CONSEQUENTIALIST THEORY IN ETHICS – The position that the morality of an action is determined by its nonmoral consequences.

CORRESPONDENCE THEORY – A theory concluding that truth is an agreement between a proposition and a fact.

COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT – An argument for the existence of God which claims that there must be an ultimate causal explanation for why the universe as a totality exists.

COSMOLOGY – The study of the universal world processes—the process by which the world unfolds and evolves. It studies the origin and nature of the world.

CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY – The analysis and definition of basic concepts and the precise expression and criticism of basic beliefs.

DECONSTRUCTION – A post-structuralist theory associated with Derrida that attempts to sho that all pairs of opposite concepts in philosophical systems are in fact self-refuting.

DEISM – A belief in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in a God who, having created the universe, remains apart from it and administers it through natural laws.

DEONTOLOGY – Any position in ethics that claims that the rightness or wrongness of actions depends on whether they correspond to our duty or not. The word derives from the Greek word for duty, deon.

DESIGN ARGUMENT – An argument for the existence of God that claims that the order and purpose manifest in the working of things in the universe require a God.

DETERMINISM – The theory that everything that occurs happens in accordance with some regular pattern or law. Accordingly, human beings do not possess freedom of the will or the power to originate independent or genuine choices.

DIALECTIC – In general, the critical analysis of ideas to determine their meanings, implications, and assumptions; as used by Hegel, a method of reasoning used to synthesize contradictions.

DIVINE COMMAND THEORY – A single-rule, non-consequential normative theory which says that we should always to the will of God. It asserts that the rightness or wrongness of actions depends on whether or not these actions correspond to God’s commands.

DOGMATISM – The act of making a positive assertion without demonstration by either rational argument or experience.

DOLORS – Utilitarian unit of pain or displeasure. Its opposite is hedon, a unit of pleasure.

DUALISM – The theory that reality is composed of two different, independent, irreducible substances so that neither one can be related to the other—thus, spirit/matter, mind/body, good/evil. This is the contrast of monism and pluralism.

DUTY THEORY – In ethics, the position that a moral action is the one that conforms with obligations accrued in the past, such as the obligations or gratitude, fidelity, or justice.

ECLECTICISM – A consequentialist ethical theory which contends that we act morally when we act in a way that promotes our own best long-term interest.

ECUMENICAL TRADITION – In various religions, this tradition is characterized by an openness to other religious traditions and a willingness to explore overlapping areas of faith; this tradition is often contrasted with fundamentalist and absolutist traditions in religion.

EMERGENCE/EMERGENT EVOLUTION – The view that in the development of the universe, new life forms appear which cannot be explained solely by analysis of previous forms.

EMOTIVISM – The metaethical position that ethical statements primarily express surprise, shock, or some other emotion. It holds that moral judgments are simply expressions of positive or negative feelings.

EMPERICISM – The position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience, which denies that human beings possess inborn knowledge or that they can derive knowledge through the exercise of reason alone.

ENLIGHTENMENT – (1)An intellectual movement in modern Europe from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries that believed in the power of human reason to understand the world and to guide human conduct. (2) For Buddhists, the state of Enlightenment or nirvana is the goal of human existence.

ENTITLEMENT THEORY – A theory of social justice contending that individuals are entitled to their properties and other holdings without harming anyone in the process. This is expressed in the Latin maxim, sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas.

EPICUREANISM – The belief in pleasure as the highest good.

EPIPHENOMENALISM – The view that matter is primary and the mind is a secondary phenomenon accompanying some bodily process.

EPISTEMOLOGY – The branch of Philosophy which investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge.

ESSENCE – The chief characteristic, quality, or necessary function that makes a thing what it uniquely is.

ETHICAL ABSOLUTION/ABSOLUTISM – In Ethics, the view that affirms the existence of a single correct and universally applicable moral standard.

ETHICAL EGOISM – A moral theory that in its most common version (universal ethical egoism) states that each person ought to act in his or her own self-interest.

ETHICAL RELATIVISM – Any view that denies the existence of a single universally applicable moral standard. There are two types: (1) DESCRIPTIVE ETHICAL RELATIVISM, which claims as a matter of fact that different people have different moral beliefs, but it takes no stand on whether those beliefs are valid or not; and (2) NORMATIVE ETHICAL RELATIVISM, which claims that each culture’s beliefs are right within that culture and that it is impossible to judge validly another culture’s values from the outside.

ETHICS – That branch of Philosophy which is the explicit reflection on moral beliefs and practices. (1) A set of rules for human behavior; (2) a study of judgments of value—of good and evil, right and wrong, or desirable and undesirable; (3) theories of obligation or duty or why we “ought” to behave in certain way.

EUDAEMONISM – From Greek eudaimonia (“flourishing; happiness”), it is the view that the goal of life is happiness—that is, complete, long-lived kind of well-being.

EXCUSABILITY – The concept that under certain circumstances, people are nor morally responsible for their decisions and conduct.

EXISTENTIALISM – A twentieth century philosophy by Sartre and Merleau-Ponty which denies any essential human nature; each of us creates our own essence through free action.

FATALISM – The view that events are fixed, that humans can do nothing to alter them.

FORMALISM – In Ethics, it is the view that moral acts from fixed moral principles and do not change because of circumstances.

FREE WILL – The theory that in some cases the will makes decisions or choices independent of prior physiological or psychological causes.

FUNCTIONALISM – A contemporary theory of mind-body problem that mental events depend on networks, pathways, and the interconnection of mental processes, but not on any specific material stuff that the brain is composed of, such as neurons. It holds open the possibility that mental events can occur in nonbiological systems, such as silicon chips.

FUNDAMENTALISM – In various religious traditions, this is the belief that correct religious belief and practice are determined by how close they correspond to the basic texts and dogmas. In fundamentalistic traditions, basic texts and rules are often interpreted very literally.

GESTALT THEORY – The twentieth century psychological theory which states that our perceptual experience consists of a full range of characteristics—form, structure, sense, meaning, and value—all simultaneously.

HEDONISM – The doctrine that pleasure is the actual, and also the proper, motive of every choice.

HERD MENTALITY – A view in Nietzsche’s philosophy which states that people are often reduced to a common level of mediocrity.

HINDUISM – is a belief that the soul is the ultimate, eternal reality but is bound by the law of karma (action) to the world of matter, which it can escape only after spiritual progress through an endless series of births; thus, the ultimate humanity’s goal is the liberation (moksha) of the spirit (jiva).

IDEALISM – The view that mind is the ultimate reality in the world, as opposed to materialism, the view that all reality is composed of material things.


IDEAL UTILITARIANISM – First advanced by G.E. Moore in the nineteenth century, is a form of utilitarianism which maintains that we ought to act to maximize the realization of certain ideals, such as truth or beauty.

IDENTITY THEORY – A contemporary theory of mind-body problem associated with Armstrong and Smart that reduces mental events to brain activity.

ILLUSION – For Freud, it means a false belief growing out of a deep wish; it is an erroneous impression, such as optical illusion.

IMPRESSION – Hume’s term for experience consisting of sensations and mental reflections.

INDETERMINISM – The theory which states that in some cases the will makes decisions or choices independent of prior physiological or psychological causes.

INTEGRATIONISM – A theory that attempts to reconcile apparently conflicting tendencies or values into a single framework. Integrationist positions are contrasted with separatist positions, which advocate keeping groups (usually defined by race, ethnicity, or gender) separate from each other.

INSTRUMENTALISM – Dewey’s theory which states that thought is instrumental insofar as it produces practical consequences.

INTUITION – Direct and immediate knowledge of the self, the external world, values, or other metaphysical truths, without the need to define the notions, to justify a conclusion, or to build up inferences.

INTUITIONISM – In metaphysics, the doctrine that intuition rather than reason reveals the reality of things; in ethics, the doctrine that man has an innate sense of right and wrong.

LOGICAL POSITIVISM – The twentieth century movement in the analytical tradition that rests on the verification principle.

MARXISM – The materialist philosophy founded by Karl Marx, which advanced the theory that (1) the existence of social and economic classes is only bound up with historic phases in the development of production; (2) the class struggle necessarily leads to the dictatorship of the proletariat (working class); and (3) the dictatorship itself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to a classless society with equal distribution of wealth.

MATERIALISM – The view that matter constitutes the basis of all that exists in the universe. Hence, combinations of matter and material forces account for every aspect of reality, including the nature of thought, the process of historical and economic events, and the standard of values based on sensuous bodily pleasures and the abundance of things; this view rejects the notion of the primacy of spirit or  mind and rational purpose in nature.

METAPHYSICS – The branch of philosophy concerned with the question of the ultimate nature of reality. Unlike the sciences, which focus on various aspects of nature, metaphysics goes beyond particular things to inquire about more general questions, such as what lies beyond nature, how things come into being, what it means for something to be, and whether there is a realm of being that is not subject to change and that is, therefore, the basis of certainty in knowledge.

MONISM – The view that there is only one substance in the universe. Idealism and Materialism are monistic theories. Monism is the contrast of Dualism and Pluralism.

MORAL ISOLATIONISM – The belief that we ought not to be morally concerned with, or involved with, people outside our own immediate group. Moral isolationism is often a consequence of some versions of moral relativism.

MORAL REALISM – The belief that moral disagreements can, at least in part, be resolved by appeals to facts about the natural order of things.

MORALITY – The first-order beliefs and practices about good and evil by means of which we guide our behavior. In contrast, ethics, the second-order, is reflective consideration of our moral beliefs and practices.

NARCISSISM – An excessive preoccupation with oneself. In mythology, Narcissus was a beautiful young man who fell in love with his own image reflected in a pool of water.

NATURAL LAW – In ethics, believers in natural law hold that (1) there is a natural order to the human world, (2) this natural order is good, and (3) people therefore ought not to violate tbat order.

NIHILISM – The view that there are no value or truth. According to Nietzsche, “death of God” will be followed by the rejection of absolute values and the rejection of the idea of an objective and universal moral law.

NIRVANA – In Hindu theory, a condition of happiness arising out of the absolute cessation of desire.

NOUMENAL WORLD – The real world as opposed to the world of appearance. According to Kant, the noumenal world cannot be known.

NOUMENON – In Kant, the ultimate reality, or Thing-in-itself, which can be conceived by thought, but cannot be perceived in experience.

ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT – A proof of God’s existence devised by Anselm, such that God is defined as the greatest possible being, which necessarily entails existence.

ONTOLOGY – The study of existence and being, from the Greek ontos, “being,” and logos, “science”; related to the field of metaphysics.

PANTHEISM – The doctrine that God is immanent in all things.

PHENOMENAL WORLD – In Kant’s theory, the world of appearance versus the noumenal world beyond our knowledge.

PHENOMENOLOGY – A twentieth century philosophical movement by Husserl, which states that in accounting for knowledge, we should not go beyond the data available to consciousness derived from appearances.

PLURALISM – The view that there are more than one or two separate substances making up the world. It believes that there are multiple perspectives to an issue, each of which contains part of the truth but none of which contains the whole truth. This stands in contrast to both monism and dualism. In ethics, ethical pluralism is the belief that different moral theories each capture part of the truth of the moral life, but none of those theories has the entire answer.

POSITIVISM – A nineteenth century philosophical movement by Comte, which asserts that we should reject any investigation that does not rest on direct observation.

POSTMODERNISM – The theory in contemporary Continental philosophy which rejects the Renaissance and Enlightenment assumption that the world can be explained in a unified system.

POST-STRUCTURALISM – The radical extension of the structuralist position contending that novels and philosophical texts are completely closed systems whose meanings derive from what individual readers bring to the texts.

POSTULATE – In Kant’s theory, it pertains to a practical or moral principle that cannot be proved, such as the existence of God, the freedom of the will, or immortality, which must be believed to make possible our moral duty.

PRAGMATISM – A twentieth century movement associated with Pierce, James, and Dewey, contending that there is little value in philosophical theories that do not somehow make a difference in daily life.

PREFERENCE UTILITARIANISM – A moral theory that says we ought to act in such a way as to maximize the satisfaction of everyone’s preferences.

RATIONALISM – The philosophical view that emphasizes the ability of human reason to grasp fundamental truths about the world without the aid of sense impressions.

REDUCTIONISM – The philosophical position that complex systems can be understood by reducing them into their simplest components. The type of reductionism espoused by some Pre-Socratic philosophers is called Ontological Reductionism – the idea that all matter consists of one or a very few basic substances in various combinations (hot/cold, light/dark)..

RELATIVISM – The view that there is no absolute knowledge, that truth is different for each individual, social group, or historical period and is, therefore, relative to the circumstances of the knowing subject.

RIGHTS – These are entitlements to do something without interference from other people (negative rights) or entitlements that obligate others to do something positive to assist you (positive rights). Some rights (natural rights, human rights) belong to everyone by nature or simply by virtue of being human; some rights (legal rights) belong to people by virtue of their membership in a particular political state; other rights (moral rights) are based on acceptance of a particular moral theory.

SCHOLASTICISM – The theological and philosophical method of learning in medieval schools that emphasized deductive logic and the authority of key figures such as Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine.

SKEPTICISM – (1) the tendency to doubt some fundamental component of knowledge; (2) the Ancient Greek school of thought associated with Plato’s Academy, Pyrrho, and Sextus Empiricus. In Ancient Greek, skeptics were inquirers dedicated to the investigation of concrete experience and wary of theories that might cloud or confuse that experience. In modern times, skeptics are wary of the trustworthiness of sense experience. Thus, classical skepticism primarily distrusted theories; whereas, modern skepticism primarily distrusts experience.

SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY – In social philosophy, the doctrine that individuals give up certain liberties and rights to the state, which in turn guarantees such rights as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

SOLIPSISM – From the Latin solus, “alone” and ipse, “self”; it is the view that the self alone is the source of all knowledge of existence, which sometimes leads to the conclusion that the self is the only reality.

SOPHISTS – Wandering teachers in fifth-century Athens who especially prepared young men for political careers, who hence emphasized rhetoric and the ability to persuade audiences and win debates, and who were less concerned with pursuing truths.

SOVEREIGN – A person or state independent of any other authority or jurisdiction.

STRUCTURALISM – The theory in contemporary Continental philosophy associated with Saussaure and Levi-Strauss that the meaning of a thing is defined by its surrounding cultural structures, which in turn rely on pairs of opposite concepts, such as light and dark.

SUBJECTIVISM – An extreme version of relativism, which maintains that each person’s beliefs are relative to that person alone and cannot be judged from the outside by any other person.

TAOISM – Introduced by Lao Tzu, this philosophy of passivity and transcendentalism, believes in supernatural explanations for anything, to disregard the ephemeral things and concentrate on the eternal through meditation, special diet, and sexual hygiene.

TELEOLOGY – From the Greek telos, “purpose”; the study of purpose is human nature and in the events of history.

TELEOLOGICAL SUSPENSION OF THE ETHICAL – This is a term introduced by Soren Kierkegaard to refer to those instances in which normal ethical duties are overridden by a command from God. Kierkegaard’s principal example of this is God’s command to Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac.

TRANSCENDENTAL – beyond the realm and reach of the senses.

UNIVERSALIZABILITY – A Kantian term applied to the maxims, or subjective rules, that guide our actions. A maxim is universalizable if it can be consistently willed as a law that everyone ought to obey. The only morally good maxims are those that can be universalized. The test of universalizability ensures that everyone has the same moral obligations in morally similar situations.

UTILITARIANISM – An ethical and political economic theory associated with Bentham and Mill that an action is morally good if it produces as much good as or more good than any alternative behavior. This theory states that whatever produces the overall greatest amount of pleasure (hedonistic utilitarianism) of happiness (eudaimonistic utilitarianism) is morally right. Act utilitarians claim that we should weigh the consequences of each individual action, whereas Rule utilitarianism maintains that we should look at the consequences of adopting particular rules of conduct.

VERIFICATION PRINCIPLE – A principle in logical positivism contending that a statement is meaningful if (1) it asserts something that is true simply because the words used necessarily and always require the statement to be true (as in mathematics) or (2) it asserts something that can be judged as true or false by verifying it in experience.

VICE – A weakness of character that prevents individuals from flourishing (eudaimonia). According to Aristotle, vices typically consist of having either too much or too little of a proper virtue. Thus courage is the mean of foolhardiness (too much) and cowardice (too little).

VIRTUE – A stretch of character, usually acquired through habit, that promotes human flourishing. According to Aristotle, virtues represent a middle ground between the two extremes of too much or too little.

VIRTUE EPISTEMOLOGY – An epistemological theory that focuses on the character traits of a person, rather than on the properties of a person’s belief.

VIRTUE THEORY – A moral theory that focuses on the development of good character traits, or virtues, rather than on rules for solving moral dilemmas.

WAGER, PASCAL’S – A contention by Pascal that, when reason is neutral on the issue of God’s existence, we should be psychologically compelled to believe based on the benefits of such belief.

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